Timeline 1550-1574

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1550        Mar 24, France and England signed the Peace of Boulogne. It ended the war of England with Scotland and France. France bought back Boulogne for 400,000 crowns.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 3/24/02)

1550        Apr 2, Jews were expelled from Genoa, Italy. [see Jun 15, 1567]
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1550        Apr 12, Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, was born (d.1604). Some claimed that he was responsible for all the 37 plays, 154 sonnets and 2 long narrative poems that are attributed to William Shakespeare. De Vere was first advanced as the author of Shakespeare’s work in 1918 by English schoolmaster J. Thomas Looney.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.E1)(WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 4/18/09, p.A2)

1550        Apr 28, Powers of Dutch inquisition were extended.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1550        Apr 29, Emperor Charles V gave inquisitors additional authority.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1550        May 25, Camillus de Lellis, Italian soldier, monastery founder, saint, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1550        Jun 27, Charles IX, king of France (1560-74), was born.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1550        Jul 7, Chocolate was introduced (Europe).
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1550        Sep 5, William Cecil appointed himself English minister of foreign affairs.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1550        The Flemish Tapestry, "The Bridal Chamber of Herse," was woven by Willem de Pannemaker. It is now stored in the N.Y. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    (WSJ, 1/5/96, p.A-8)

1550        Michelangelo (75) completed the frescoes of the Cappella Paolina, "the Conversion of Paul" and "The Crucifixion of St. Peter."
1550        Michelangelo began his painting "The Deposition from the Cross," which included a self-portrait as Nicodemus.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1550        Japanese Ukiyoe painting, which takes subjects from everyday life, had its beginnings.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1550        Nicholas Udall wrote the first known English comedy: "Ralph Roister Doister."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1550        Giorgio Vasari, Italian architect and painter, published his definitive "Lives of the Artists," and founded the Fine Arts Academy in Florence.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)

1550        Palladio, Italian architect, designed the Villa Rotunda, Vincenza. It has four porticoes and symmetrical planning and is an example of his search for harmonious proportions.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1550        John Marbeck produced the first musical setting for the English liturgy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)   
1550        John Marbeck, English theologian, published a concordance of the entire English bible.   
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

c1550        In California later radiocarbon tests indicated human habitation at the bay side foot of San Bruno Mountain up to this time. The Sipliskin Tribe, a northern branch of the Ohlone Indians, occupied the site.
    (SFEC,12/29/97, p.A13)

1550        In Washington state Mount St. Helens began almost nonstop eruptions that continued for a century.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)

1550        Anton Fugger, Augsburg banker, went bankrupt. This caused financial chaos throughout Europe.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1550        Rhaticus, German mathematician, published a set of trigonometric tables.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

c1550        In Hawaii a Great Wall was built on the Big Island behind which refuge, sanctuary and purification could be sought. Puhonua o Honaunau National Historic Park later marked the area.
    (SSFC, 8/26/01, p.T9)

1550        In Italy the Beretta family branched into guns.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1550        Mercury was discovered in Peru.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1550        African slaves were shipped to Brazil to work sugar plantations.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1550        South America shipped rubber to Europe.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1550        Helsinki was founded by the Swedes.
    (SFEM, 8/8/99, p.44)

1550s        In Moscow Ivan the IV built a stone church to commemorate the triumph of Orthodoxy over Roman Catholicism, Islam and the Uniates, who sought to unite the Catholic and Orthodox churches.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.36)

1550-1555    Julius III, Giommaria Ciocci del Monte or Giovanni Maria del Monte, served as Pope 1550-1555.
    (WUD, 1994, p.773)   
1550-1563    Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor in London, kept a diary over this time that described the funerals of noble persons, the coronation of Queen Elizabeth I, the murder of Arden of Feversham by his wife and her lover, and other London events. A definitive edition of the diaries was in process by English Prof. R.W. Bailey and graduate students at the Univ. of Mich. in 1996.
    (MT, 6/96, p.9)(MT, Fall 02, p.22)
c1550-1600    Grace O’Malley led a 200-strong band on Clare Island, Ireland, financed by piracy.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T8)

c1550-1615    Shakespeare was born in England and authored about thirty-five plays. "Man and woman are always the focus of the plays... the medieval world picture fades into the background, and humankind emerges naked and unadorned...he was skillful in comedy as in tragedy, and he even knew how to mix the two... he invaded the life of ordinary families in his plays, revealing to us what we had always known but never faced. " [see Apr 23, 1564]

1551        Mar 9, Emperor Charles V appointed his son Philip as heir to the throne. Don Philip was recognized as the sole heir of Charles V.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 3/9/02)

1551        May 2, William Camden, English historian (Brittania, Annales), was born.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1551        May 12, San Marcos University opened in Lima, Peru. The Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos was founded under Spanish royal charter.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(AM, 7/01, p.18)(Econ, 10/8/11, p.47)

1551        Jun 27, France promulgated the Edict of Chateaubriand, a crackdown on Protestantism in France. The Edict of Chateaubriand placed severe restrictions on Protestants, including loss of one-third of property to informers and confiscation of all property of those who left France.

1551        Oct 16, Edward Seymour,  Duke of Somerset,  was re-arrested.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1551        Konrad von Gesner wrote the first modern book on Zoology: "Historia Animalium."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551        Cranmer published his 42 Articles, the basis of Anglican Protestantism.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551        The term "Xmas" was used at least this early for Christmas. The short form derived from the Greek letters "XP," chi and rho, as an abbreviation of the Greek symbol for Christ.
    (SFC,12/24/97, Z1 p.6)

1551        Leonard Digges, English inventor, described the theodolite (a surveying instrument to measure horizontal and vertical angles) in his posthumously published "Pantometria."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551        Spanish sailors in the Caribbean became ill after eating a fish stew. Most likely caused by ciguatera, a disease caused by toxins of microorganisms eaten by reef fish.
    (NH, 5/96, p.60)
1551        Spaniards in Chile began producing wine.
    (SFC, 8/31/07, p.F4)

1551        Printing was introduced into Ireland.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551        Henry II led French forces against Charles V in Italy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551        Persecution of the Jews became widespread in Bavaria.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)
1551        Erasmus Rheinhold, German astronomer, published astronomical tables based on the numerical values provided by Nicolas Copernicus.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551        Palestrina, Italian composer, was appointed director of music at St. Peter’s in Rome.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)
1551        The Jesuits founded the Papal Univ. in Rome.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551        Turkish forces captured Tripoli but failed to take Malta.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551        The National Univ. of Mexico was founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1551        Ivan the Terrible built Sviyazhsk, an island fortress on the Volga to help him conquer the Khanate of Kazan. In 2017 the Assumption Cathedral and Monastery on Svyyazhsk were added to the World Heritage list.
    (Econ, 10/22/16, SR p.5)(SSFC, 7/30/17, p.F3)

1551        Pope Eugenius IV brought some of the Middle-Eastern Christians back into the Western Christian fold when he established the Chaldean rite of the Catholic Church.
    (WSJ, 3/12/00, p.A10)

1552        Jan 15, France signed a secret treaty with German Protestants.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1552        Jan 22, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, was beheaded for treason.
    (MC, 1/22/02)(MT, Fall 02, p.23)

1552        Jan 23, The 2nd version of Book of Common Prayer became mandatory in England. The Second Prayer Book of Edward VI, more radical than the first, was authorized by a second Uniformity Act.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 1/23/02)

1552        Feb 1, Sir Edward Coke, English jurist, was born in Mileham, Norfolk. He helped the development of English law with his arguments for the supremacy of common law over royal prerogative.

1552        Apr 14, Laurentius Andreae, [Lars Andersson], Swedish church reformer, died.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1552        Jul 18, Rudolf II of Habsburg, emperor of Germany (1576-1612), was born.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1552        Aug 2, The treaty of Passau gave religious freedom to Protestants living in Germany. The Augsburg Interim was annulled and Lutherans were allowed freedom of worship in Germany.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(HN, 8/2/98)

1552        Aug 14, Fra Paolo Sarpi, [Paulus Venetus], expert, philosopher, was born in Venice.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1552        Aug, Ivan IV of Russia began his conquest of Kazan, Tatarstan, and Astrakhan in the Volga delta. Kazan, the capital of Tatarstan, fell to Ivan in September.
    (Econ, 6/2/07, p.56)(www.1000kzn.ru/razdel/en/227/)

1552        Oct 6, Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit missionary (China), was born.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1552        The Badianus Manuscript is the earliest known treatise on New World indigenous medicine. It was written and translated in Nahuatl and Latin by Aztec scribes Martinus de la Cruz and Juan Badianus.
    (AM, 7/01, p.37)

1552        Etienne Jodelle, French dramatist, completed his "Cleopatre Captive," the first French neoclassical tragedy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1552        Edward VI founded Christ’s Hospital in London.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)
1552        The English again attacked the Irish town and monastery at Clonmacnoise and carried everything away.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)
1552        Britain’s first licensing act on alcohol distinguisehd between rich and poor boozers with enforced strictures on “common alehouses" which not apply to wine taverns.
    (Econ, 1/5/13, p.44)
1552        A revision of canon law in Britain meant that adulterers could face life imprisonment of exiled.
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)

1552        The Treaty of Friedewalde confirmed the alliance between Henry II of France and the Protestant princes of Germany against Charles V.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1552        The Turks invaded Hungary again with a victory at the Battle Szegedin. Istvan Dobo led the defense of Eger against the Turks. The siege of Eger lasted 38 days.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(Hem., 6/98, p.126)

1552        Books on geography and astronomy were burned in England because of fears of magic.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1552        The shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar was begun. In 2000 Duncan Steel authored "Marking Time: The Epic Quest to Invent the Perfect Calendar."
    (SFEC, 2/20/00, Par p.7)

1552        Bartolomeo Eustachio, Italian anatomist, described the Eustachian tube of the ear and the Eustachian valve in the heart.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1552-1553    Giovanni Battista Moroni, Renaissance artist, painted his "Portrait of Isotta Brembati."
    (WSJ, 4/13/00, p.A19)
1552-1599    Edmund Spencer, helped establish the form of modern English in literature.

1553        Apr 29, A Flemish woman introduced to England the practice of starching linen.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1553        May 5, Erasmus Alberus (~52), German theologist (Barfesser Munche), died.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1553        Jun 12, King Edward VI accepted archbishop Cranmer's "42 Articles."
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1553        Jul 6, Edward VI Tudor (15), King of England (1547-53), died. Mary Tudor was warned that Edward VI was already dead and that she was walking into a trap set by John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, Edward’s regent.
    (ON, 5/00, p.3)(MC, 7/6/02)

1553        Jul 9, Maurice of Saxony was mortally wounded at Sievershausen, Germany, while defeating Albert of Brandenburg-Kulmbach.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

1553        Jul 10, After King Edward VI of England died of tuberculosis, John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, tried to get his daughter, Lady Jane Grey (the great-granddaughter of Henry VII), declared the queen and got archbishop Cranmer’s signature to that end. However the succession went to Mary, the Catholic half-sister of Edward. Cranmer and others were then found guilty of treason.
    (WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.24)

1553        Jul 19, 15-year-old Lady Jane Grey, daughter of John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, was deposed as Queen of England after claiming the crown for nine days. Mary, the daughter of King Henry VIII, was proclaimed Queen.
    (AP, 7/19/97)

1553        Aug 2, An invading French army was destroyed at the Battle of Marciano in Italy by an imperial army.
    (HN, 8/2/98)

1553        Aug 3, Mary Tudor, the new Queen of England, entered London.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1553        Aug 12, Pope Julius III ordered the confiscation and burning of the Talmud.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1553        Aug 23, John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, English Lord Admiral, premier (1551-53), was beheaded on Tower Hill in front of 10,000 onlookers.
    (ON, 5/00, p.5)(Internet)

1553        Sep 4, Cornelia da Nomatalcino, a monk who converted to Judaism, was burned at the stake.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1553        Oct 16, Lucas Cranach the elder (b.1472), German painter and graphic artist, died at 81. His work included "Madonna and Child in a Landscape."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(WUD, 1994, p.339)(http://tinyurl.com/ykv47h)

1553        Oct 19, Bonifazio Veronese, Veneziano, [de' Pitati], Italian painter, died.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1553        Oct 21, Volumes of the Talmud were burned.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1553        Oct 27, Michael Servetus (b.1511), Spanish theologian and physician, was burnt for heresy in Geneva, Switzerland. His last book "Christianismi Restitutio" included a chapter on the pulmonary circulation of blood. In 2002 Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone authored "Out of the Flames." [see 1540]
    (HN, 10/27/98)(WSJ, 9/18/02, p.D8)(WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)

1553        Nov 13, English Lady Jane Grey and the bishop Cranmer were accused of high treason.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1553        Dec 13, Henry IV (d.1610), Henry of Navarre, Henry the Great, 1st Bourbon king of Navarre, France, (1572/89-1610), was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.662)(MC, 12/13/01)

1553        "Les Observations de Plusieurs Singularitez et Choses Memorables" was written by Pierre Belon, French naturalist and traveler. It included an account of Turkish fruit sorbets.
    (NH, 4/97, p.77)

1553        Pedro Cieza de Leon wrote the first European description of the potato in his “Chronicles of Peru."
    (SSFC, 10/5/08, p.A15)

1553        Virgil’s "Aeneid" was translated into English for the first time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553        Christopher Tye composed "The Acts of the Apostles."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553        The Forty-two Articles of the Church of England were written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer "for the avoiding of controversy in opinions." The Forty-two Articles had been partly derived from the Thirteen Articles of 1538. When Mary became queen in 1553 and restored Catholicism, the Forty-two Articles were eliminated.
    (HNQ, 10/20/98)

1553        In London The Mysterie and Compagnie of the Merchant Adventurers for the Discoverie of Regions, Dominions, Islands and Places Unknown offered stock to finance a quest for a passage to the riches of the East. The Muscovy Company venture led to the death of explorer Sir Hugh Willoughby who died with the crews of 2 ships in the Arctic ice. A 3rd ship reached the court of Ivan the Terrible in Moscow and returned with a treaty giving England freedom to trade there.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1553        Bavaria outlawed summer-made beer because wintertime brews had outstripped them in quality. In 2011 a yeast from Patagonia, Saccharomyces eubayanus, was identified as being 99.5% identical to the non-ale half of the lager yeast genome. It was believed that over time Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybridized to form Saccharomyces pastorianus, used by lager brewers today.
    (Econ, 8/27/11, p.71)

1553        Protestants fearing persecution in England began leaving to Switzerland.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553         Piri Reis, aka Ahmed Muhiddin Piri, (b.1465-1470), Ottoman admiral, navigator, geographer and cartographer, died. He was beheaded in Cairo, having been found guilty of raising the siege of Hormuz Island and abandoning the fleet, even though his reason was the lack of maintenance of his ships. Although he was not an explorer and never sailed to the Atlantic, he compiled over twenty maps of Arab, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Indian and older Greek origins into a comprehensive representation of the known world of his era.

1553        The League of Heidelberg was formed by German Catholic and Protestant princes to stop Philip of Spain from becoming Holy Roman Emperor.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553        The National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) was founded as a royal, pontifical university.
    (WSJ, 9/1/99, p.A1)

1553        Suleiman I of Turkey made peace with Persia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553        Turkish warships ravaged the Mediterranean.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553        Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor voyaged to Russia via Archangel seeking a north-east passage to China. Willoughby discovered Novaya Zemlya and died on the Kola Peninsula.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553        Giambattista della Porta, Italian inventor, improved the camera obscura.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1553        Francois Rabelais (b.1490), French physician, satirist and humorist, died. He studied with the Benedictines and received orders from the Franciscans. His work included the multi-volume "La Vie de Gargantua et de Pantagruel."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1183)(V.D.-H.K.p.143)(SSFC, 2/10/02, p.G5)

1554        Jan 9, Gregory XV, Roman Catholic Pope was born.
    (HN, 1/9/98)

1554        Jan 26, Florentine troops approached Siena. After an initial failed assault, the Marquess of Marignano laid siege to the city. During the siege repairs and improvements to the city walls were entrusted to the city's women.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Marciano)(Econ, 3/28/20, p.73)

1554        Feb 12, Lady Jane Grey (17), who had claimed the throne of England for nine days, the Queen of England for thirteen days, was beheaded on Tower Hill along with her husband, Guildford Dudley, after being condemned for high treason.
    (HN, 2/12/99)(AP, 2/12/08)

1554        Feb 21, Hieronymus Bock, German doctor (founder of modern botany), died.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1554        Feb 23, Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk and Lady Jane Grey's father, was executed.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1554        Mar 3, Johan Frederik de Greatmoedige (50), ruler of Saxon (1532-47), died.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1554        Mar 12, Richard Hooker, English theologian, was born. He authored "Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity."
    (HN, 3/12/99)

1554        Jul 24, Queen Mary of England married Philip II, king of Spain and the Catholic son of Emp. Charles V.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(ON, 5/00, p.5)(MC, 7/24/02)

1554        Aug 2, The Battle of Marciano (aka the Battle of Scannagallo) occurred in the countryside of Marciano della Chiana, near Arezzo, Tuscany. The battle marked the defeat of the Republic of Siena in its war against the Duchy of Florence, and resulted in Siena losing its independence and being absorbed into the Duchy of Florence. When the Florentine army defeated the Siennese a moratorium was put on further development in the walled city.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Marciano)(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T11)

1554        Oct, Mongol fighters battled Chinese defenders at the Jinshanling wall. After 3 days of fighting the Chinese overwhelmed the Mongols.
    (SFC, 2/9/06, p.E4)

1554        Nov 30, Sir Philip Sidney (d.1586), English poet, statesman and soldier was born.
    (HN, 11/30/98)(MC, 11/30/01)
1554        Nov 30, England reconciled with Pope Julius III.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 11/30/01)

1554        Benvenuto Cellini completed his masterpiece, the bronze Perseus.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554        Palladio wrote "L’Antichita," a guidebook to Roman antiquities.   
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554        Jorg Wickram, German writer, wrote the first German romance novel: "Der Goldfaden."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)
1554        Palestrina composed his first book of Masses.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554        Babur's son, Humayun, handed Kandahar over to the Safavid Shah Tahmasp in return of 70,000 soldiers he received from the Shah to reconquer India. In 1595, Humayun's son Akbar the Great conquered the city by diplomacy.

1554        The hamlet of Sao Paulo, Brazil, was founded by Jesuit missionaries.
    (Econ, 9/3/11, p.61)

1554        At London’s Guildhall Sir Nicholas Throckmorton was tried and found not guilty. The verdict was deemed unsatisfactory and the whole jury was carted off to prison and released after paying heavy fines. [see Nov, 1583]
    (SFC, 8/11/96, p.T7)
1554        Flemish hop growers emigrated to England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554        Fernelius, French physician, codified the medicine of the Renaissance.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)
1554        Henry II of France invaded the Netherlands.   
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554        John Knox fled to Geneva where he met Jean Calvin.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554        Dragut, leader of the Mediterranean pirates, recaptured Mehedia, Tunisia, from the Spaniards.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1554-1562    Pierre Eskrich (aka Pierre DuVase), a French illustrator, produced a collection of 218 bird paintings. He had fled Lyon to Geneva to escape the Edict of Chateaubriand (1551), a crackdown on Protestantism in France.
    (SFC, 3/17/06, p.E7)

1555        Feb 9, John Hooper, the deprived Bishop of Gloucester, was burned for heresy.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1555        Mar 23, Julius III (67), born as Giovanni M. del Monte, Pope (1550-55), died. He was succeeded by Marcellus II and then by Paul IV.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(SS, 3/23/02)

1555        May 25, Gemma Frisius (46), Frisian geographer, astronomer, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1555        Sep 8, Thomas Villanova, Spanish saint and archbishop of Valencia, died.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1555        Sep 25, The Religious Peace of Augsburg compromised differences between Catholics and Protestants in the German states. Each prince could chose which religion would be followed in his realm. Lutheranism was acknowledged by the Holy Roman Empire. The Peace of Augsburg was the first permanent legal basis for the existence of Lutheranism as well as Catholicism in Germany. It was promulgated as part of the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles V's Augsburg Interim of 1548 was a temporary doctrinal agreement between German Catholics and Protestants that was overthrown in 1552.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(PCh, 1992, p.189)(HNQ, 2/8/99)

1555        Sep 30, Oxford Bishop Nicholas Ridley was sentenced to death as a heretic.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1555        Oct 16, Hugh Latimer (80), Protestant royal chaplain of Anne Boleyn, was burned at stake at Oxford for heresy under the Catholic rule of Mary, half-sister of Edward VI.
    (WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3859836193/)
1555        Oct 16, Nicholas Ridley, Protestant English theologian and bishop of Rochester, was burned at Oxford for heresy under the Catholic rule of Mary, half-sister of Edward VI.
    (WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3859836193/)

1555        Oct 21, English parliament refused to recognize Philip of Spain as king.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1555        Oct 25, Emperor Charles V put his son Philip II in charge of Netherlands, Naples, and Milan.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1555        Nov 21, Georgius Bauer (b.1494), German mineralogist (Agricola), died. His full description of mining, smelting, and chemistry in "De Re Metallica," was published in Basel in 1556. In it he described the hazards of mining, including occupational diseases such as "difficulty in breathing and destruction of the lungs." It was still the major source on the state of technology in the Middle Ages. In 1912 it was translated by Herbert Hoover, mining engineer and future US president.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)(WSJ, 7/29/06, p.P8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Agricola)

1555        Fr. Bernardino de Sahagun wrote down "The War of Conquest: The Aztec’s Own Story."
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)

1555        England’s Parliament established the Company of Watermen and Lightermen to regulate the Thames boating industry.
    (AP, 1/9/07)
1555        In England Queen Mary began a campaign of burnings and hangings during which over 300 people were executed for refusing to abandon their Protestant faith.
    (ON, 5/00, p.5)

1555        Michelangelo began work on his Rondanini Pieta with a modern expressionistic quality.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1555        The first Aztec dictionary was published.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1555        Pierre Belon, French naturalist, published the first comprehensive study of birds in "L’Histoire de la nature des oyseaux."   
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1555        Guillaume Rondelet wrote a classic taxonomy of fishes. His categories, based on general shape and habitation, precluded any deep insight into a genealogical basis of historical order.
    (NH, 9/97, p.15)

1555        The first Jesuit play was performed in Vienna.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1555        Balthazar de Beaujoyeoux, violinist, introduced several fellow violinists to the court of Catherine de Medici. Under his influence the lute was replaced by the violin as France’s most popular instrument.
    (SFC, 12/29/96, zone 1 p.2)

1555         Siena was incorporated with Florence. When the Florentine army defeated the Siennese a moratorium was put on further development in the walled city.
    (EWH, p.426)(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T11)

1555        Japanese pirates besieged Nanking.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1555        The Ottoman Empire continued its conquest of the North African coast.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1555-1558    England suffered outbreaks of dysentery, typhus and Influenza all over the country.

1555-1600    Richard Hooker, architect of Anglicanism. The Anglican Communion emerged from the conflicts between Henry VIII and Pope Clement VII over Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn.
    (SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1555-1636    Tung Ch’i-ch’ang, painter and master of calligraphy. He also mastered the play of void and presence at the heart of Chinese ink painting.
    (SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)

1556        Feb 5, Henry II of France and Philip of Spain signed the truce of Vaucelles.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1556        Feb 14, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer was declared a heretic.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1556        Feb 2, The worst earthquake in history devastated China’s Shanxi Province, killing 830,000 people.
    (PCh, 1992, p.190)(www.kepu.ac.cn/english/quake/ruins/rns03.html)

1556        Mar 21, Former Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer (66), scheduled to denounce his errors and be burned at the stake, denounced his own confessions and was hustled off to be burned. He then put forth his hand and declared: "Forasmuch as my hand offended, writing contrary to my heart, my hand shall first be punished."
    (WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(MC, 3/21/02)

1556        Mar 22, Cardinal Reginald Pole became archbishop of Canterbury.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1556        Mar 28, Philip II, Charles V's son, was crowned king of Spain. [see Sep 12]
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1556        Apr 13, Portuguese Marranos who reverted back to Judaism were burned alive by order of Pope.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1556        Jun 16, Pedro Fernandes Sardinha, The 1st bishop of Bahia,  was shipwrecked between the rivers São Francisco and Cururipu and murdered by the Indians. The Caytes of the Brazilian coast ate the crews of every wrecked Portuguese ship they found. They ate the first Bishop of Bahia, two Canons, the Procurator of the Royal Portuguese Treasury, 2 pregnant women and several children.
    (WSJ, 7/8/96,p.A9)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/13466a.htm)

1556        Jul 31, St. Ignatius of Loyola (65), founder of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuit order of Catholic priests and brothers, died in Rome.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignatius_of_Loyola)(AP, 7/31/97)

1556        Sep 9, Pope Paul IV refused to crown Ferdinand of Austria emperor.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1556        Sep 12, Emperor Charles resigned and his brother Ferdinand of Austria took over. Charles V resigned and ended his days in a Spanish monastery. He bequeathed Spain to his son Philip II, and the Holy Roman Empire to his brother Ferdinand I. A few years of peace in Europe followed. The event formed the basis for a later historical play by Friedrich Schiller, which was in turn used by Verdi for his opera "Don Carlos."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-12)(MC, 9/12/01)

1556        Sep 13, Charles V and Maria of Hungary marched into Spain.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1556        Nov 5, The Emperor Akbar defeated the Hindus in a 2nd Battle at Panipat and secured control of the Mogul Empire. Akbar the Great became Mogul Emperor of India and defeated the Afghans at the Battle of Panipat in the Punjab.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(HN, 11/5/98)

1556        Nov 10, The Englishman Richard Chancellor was drowned off Aberdeenshire on his return from a second voyage to Russia.
    (HN, 11/10/98)

1556        Nov 14, Giovanni Della Costa (b.1503), Florentine poet, writer on etiquette and society, diplomat, and inquisitor, died. He is celebrated for his famous treatise on polite behavior, Il Galateo overo de’ costumi (1558).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_della_Casa)(Econ., 8/1/20, p.70)

1556        Robert Recorde, English mathematician, wrote a navigational guide to China, "The Castle of Knowledge." He was the first person to use the "=" sign.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1556        Orlando di Lasso, Belgian composer, composed his first book of motets, among the earliest of 2,000 compositions.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1556        Suleiman’s mosque in Constantinople was completed after six years of work.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1556        The Jesuit order was established in Prague.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1556        In India Humayun fell down the library steps in Purana Qila and died. This put his 14-year-old son, Akbar, on the throne.
    (HT, 4/97, p.22)

1556        The first tobacco seeds from Brazil reached Europe, brought back by Andre Thevet, a Franciscan monk. [see Mar 5, 1558, 1561]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1556        Philip II of Spain made the Duke of Alba his chief military and political advisor.
    (WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1556-1605    The Mughal Empire (Northern India) prospered under Akbar.
    (ATC, p.1161)

1556-1605    Akbar the Great during his reign built a walled Mughal fort at Hund in northern Pakistan, that now encloses a modern village.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)

1556-1620    Adriaen de Vries, Dutch sculptor. He was born in The Hague and worked in Florence under the sculptor Giovanni Bologna. His work included "Juggling Man" (c1610-1615), a bust of Emp. Rudolf II (1603), and the Neptune Fountain (1615-1618).
    (WSJ, 1/6/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)

1557        Jan 2, Jacopo da Pontormo (b.1494), aka Jacopo Carucci, died. He was an Italian Mannerist painter and portraitist from the Florentine School.
    (Econ, 2/23/13, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontormo)

1557        Feb 27, The 1st Russian Embassy opened in London.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1557        Jul 16, Anne of Cleves (41), queen of England and 4th wife of Henry VIII, died.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1557        Aug 10, Spanish and English troops in alliance defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin (San Quintino). French troops were defeated by Emanuele Filiberto's Spanish army at St. Quentin, France.
    (HN, 8/10/98)(www.niaf.org/news/news_italy/news_italy_mar2003.asp)

1557        Sep 1, Jacques Cartier, French explorer, died in St. Malo, France.

1557        Sep 11, Catholic & Lutheran theology were debated in Worms. Catholics and Protestants met in Worms in a final effort to achieve reconciliation.
    (MC, 9/11/01)(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557        Dec 3, The 1st Covenant of Scottish protestants formed.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1557        Pieter Breughel the Elder created his painting "The Drunkard Pushed Into the Pigsty."
    (WSJ, 9/6/02, p.W14)

1557        The first English play to be censored, "The Sea-Sack Full of Newes," was produced at Aldgate in London, and was promptly suppressed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557        William Whittingham translated the Geneva Testament into English. It was divided into verses and printed in Roman type.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557        Robert Recorde published the first English treatise on algebra, "Whetstone of Witte."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557        The world’s first sovereign bankruptcy took place following the indulgence of Genoese lenders for Spain’s Philip II expensive taste for warfare.
    (Econ, 9/23/06, p.11)
1557        The influx of New World silver caused bankruptcies in France and Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557        The Portuguese settled in Macao, on the coast of southern China, and established trading factories. Trade agreement gave the Portuguese a virtual monopoly for 300 years on maritime commerce China and Europe.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A24)(SFEM, 10/10/99, p.16)

1557        The Russians invaded Poland and started the 14-year Livonian War of succession in the Baltic lands held by the Teutonic Knights.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557        The Spanish enslaved local Indians around Guanajuato, Mexico, to work a silver mine. A major vein was struck in 1768.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D7)

1557        John III (the Pious) of Portugal, who began the Inquisition, died. He was succeeded by his three-year old grandson, Sebastian.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557        Olaus Magnus (b.1490), Swedish mapmaker, died. He guessed at the location of the northern land of Thule mentioned by Greek explorer Pytheas (c380-310BC).
    (WSJ, 3/4/06, p.P9)

1558        Jan 6, The French seized the British held port of Calais.
    (HN, 1/6/99)

1558        Jan 7, The French, under the Duke of Guise, finally took the port of Calais from the English.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1558        Mar 5, Smoking tobacco was introduced in Europe by Francisco Fernandes. [see 1556]
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1558        Apr 24, Mary, Queen of Scotland, married the French dauphin, Francis.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1558        Apr 26, Jean Francois Fernel, French physician, died.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1558        Jun 22, The French took the French town of Thioville from the English.
    (HN, 6/22/98)

1558        Jul 13, Led by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeated the French at Gravelines, France.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1558        Jul 23, Battle at Grevelingen: Gen. Lamoral van Egmont beat France. [see Jul 13]
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1558        Aug 4, 1st printing of Zohar (Jewish Kabala).
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1558        Sep 21, Charles V (b.1500), King of Spain (Carlos I), former Holy Roman Emperor (1519-1556), died. In 2006 lab tests showed that Charles suffered from gout.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(http://tinyurl.com/kq9sq)

1558        Nov 6, Thomas Kyd, English dramatist (Spanish Tragedy), was born.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1558        Nov 17, Queen Mary (1553-58), Mary I Tudor (42), "Bloody Mary", died. Over 280 Protestants were burned under her rule. Elizabeth I ascended the English throne. With the reign of Elizabeth I a new statement of doctrine of the Church of England was needed. The Church of England was reestablished. In 1996 Carolly Erickson authored "Bloody Mary."
    (AP, 11/17/97)(HNQ, 10/20/98)(HN, 11/17/98)(ON, 5/00, p.5)(Econ, 9/18/10, p.72)
1558        Nov 17, Reginald Pole (58), English cardinal, scholar, "heretic", died.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1558        Hendrick Goltzius (d.1617), Dutch Master painter, was born.
    (WSJ, 8/14/03, p.D8)

1558        John Knox authored "The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women." He was referring to the governments of Mary Tudor in England and Mary, Queen of the Scots.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.14)

1558        Giovanni Battista della Porta, Italian artist, published his "Natural Magic," the first published account of the use of the camera obscura as an aid to artists.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558        The religious climate in England changed for the better and Protestants returned home from Geneva and Zurich.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558        The Hamburg exchange was founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558        The Univ. of Jena was founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558        Mary Queen of Scots married the Dauphin, who later became Francis II of France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558        Ferdinand I became Holy Roman Emperor without being crowned by the Pope.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558        Thomas Gresham (1519-1579, English financier, put forward proposals for reforming the English currency. He formulated Gresham’s Law, a hypothesis that bad money drives good money out of circulation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(WUD, 1994, p.622)

1558        John Dee, English mathematician, invented two compasses for master pilots.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1558        Sidi Mahmoud Ben Amar (b.1463/64), a member of the Berber tribe of the Godala, died in Mali. He was named Cadi in 1498 or 99. His tomb in Timbuktu was later named a World Heritage site. 
    (SFC, 5/7/12, p.A2)(www.exploretimbuktu.com/culture/culture/saints.html)

1558-1637    Hon’ami Koetsu, Japanese art collector, calligrapher and ceramist in Kyoto.
    (WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A24)

1559        Jan 15, England's Queen Elizabeth I was crowned in Westminster Abbey and Lord Dudley soon became her favorite.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(AP, 1/15/98)

1559        Jan 29, Thomas Pope (~52), English politician, benefactor, died.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1559        Feb 16, Pope Paul IV called for the overthrow of sovereigns supporting heresy.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1559        Mar 14, Jacques d'Auchy, Walloon Baptist merchant, was executed.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1559        Apr 3, Philip II of Spain and Henry II of France signed the peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending a long series of wars between the Hapsburg and Valois dynasties. Turin was chosen as the new capital of Savoy state under Duke Emanuele Filiberto.
    (HN, 4/3/99)(www.world66.com/europe/italy/piemonte/turin/history)

1559        May 8, An act of supremacy defined Queen Elizabeth I as the supreme governor of the church of England. Soon after Elizabeth I took power in 1558 some 200 Catholics were strangled and disemboweled.
    (HN, 5/8/99)(Econ, 9/18/10, p.72)

1559        May 10, Scottish Protestants under John Knox rose against Queen Mary. Knox preached an inflammatory sermon at Perth and incited the Protestants lords to rise. They captured Edinburgh and sacked religious houses in other cities.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(MC, 5/10/02)

1559        May 13, Excavated corpse of heretic David Jorisz was burned in Basel.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1559        Jul 10, Henry II of France died following a wound to the head by a tournament lance on June 30. This allegedly fulfilled a prophecy by Nostradamus. Gabriel de Lorges de Montgomery, captain of the Scottish Guards, accidentally killed Henry II as they jousted in front of the Hotel Royal des Tournelles. The widowed queen, Catherine de Medicis (d.1589), had the royal residence demolished.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(SFEM, 3/15/98, p.16)

1559        Aug 14, Spanish explorer Tristan de Luna entered Pensacola Bay, Florida. 1,500 Spanish settlers sailed from Vera Cruz to found a settlement on Pensacola Bay in Florida, but were repulsed by hostile Indians. The location of the Spanish settlement founded in the area of Pensacola, Fl., remained a mystery until 2016 when amateur archaeologist Tom Garner stumbled upon some shards of 16th century Spanish pottery.
    (HN, 8/14/98)(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(AP, 3/24/06)

1559        Aug 18, Pope Paul IV (b.1476) died and was succeeded by Pius IV.

1559        Aug 22, Spanish archbishop Bartholome de Carranza was arrested as a heretic.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1559        Sep, A Spanish expedition was scuttled by a hurricane, shortly after the fleet arrived in Pensacola. Five ships sank.
    (AP, 2/17/16)

1559        Titian began his work "Europa." It was completed in 1562. In 1896 it was acquired by Isabella Stewart Gardner. [see 1562]
    (WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

1559        The Elizabethan Prayer Book was used for the first time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)
1559        England was hit with a flu epidemic.
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.67)

1559        Wen Zhengming (b.1470), Chinese artist, died. He was later considered the Michelangelo of Chinese art. Most of his work, composites of poetry, calligraphy and painting, was done to repay obligations.
    (Econ, 8/21/04, p.70)

1559        Denmark began to bury its royals in the Roskilde cathedral.
    (SFC, 8/5/17, p.A2)

1559        The first synod of Calvinist, or Reformed, churches, met in Paris. The common name given to French Protestants during the Reformation, Huguenots, came into use soon thereafter. They formed a loose national organization as they won converts among many French nobles. This led to a series of wars as Roman Catholic nobles feared the growth of Huguenot power. [see 1572]
    (HNQ, 10/8/00)

1559        Realdo Columbus, Italian anatomist, advanced the understanding of human blood circulation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1559        The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended the war between the late Holy Roman Emp. and France, and between England and France. Calais was to remain French for eight years and then to be restored to England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1559        The Escorial, an enormous palace built on a grid plan for Philip II, was begun in Madrid.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)
1559        Mateo Prunes, a Majorcan mapmaker, created his portolan chart of the Mediterranean and Black seas on the skin of a single sheep. Portolan charts are navigational maps based on realistic descriptions of harbors and coasts.
    (SSFC, 5/23/10, p.A15)
1559        1,500 Spanish settlers sailed from Vera Cruz to found a settlement on Pensacola Bay in Florida, but were repulsed by hostile Indians. A Spanish settlement was founded in the area of Pensacola, Fl., but its exact location is a mystery.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(AP, 3/24/06)

1559        King Christian of Denmark and Norway died after almost 24 years on the throne. He was succeeded by his son Frederick II.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1559        The Geneva Academy was founded. It became a Univ. in 1873.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1559        Pope Paul IV promulgated the Pauline Index, the Catholic Church's 1st Index Librorum Prohibitorum. The Index banned the entire oeuvre of Desiderius Erasmus. The Index of Forbidden Books was maintained until 1966.
    (SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.64)

1560        Jan 31, Spanish king Philip II married Elisabeth de Valois.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1560        Aug 10, Hieronymus Praetorius, German composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1560        Aug 21, Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) became interested in astronomy.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1560        Sep 16, Arnaud du Tilh, who had confessed to impersonating Martin Guerre, was hanged in front of Guerre’s house in Artigat, France. In 1941 Janet Lewis (1899-1998) published "The Wife of Martin Guerre," a historical novel based on Guerre. The story was turned into an opera in 1961 with music by William Bergsma. In 1984 a French film version was released "The Return of Martin Guere." An American version, "Somersby," was made in 1993 set during the Civil War.
    (SFC, 12/5/98, p.C2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Guerre)

1560        Hsu Wei wrote the first classic Chinese novel, "Ching Ping Mei."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560        Cardinal Mendoza, archbishop of Burgos, wrote "Tizon de la nobleza de Espana," (the Blot on the Spanish Nobility). He claimed that virtually the entire aristocracy had Jewish or Moorish blood to point to the folly of the Inquisition’s campaign to prevent anyone with Jewish blood from securing a position of authority under the crown.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1560        The Geneva Bible, an English translation, was published.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1560        In Denmark Frederiksborg Castle was built by King Frederick II (1534-1588). It was expanded from 1602-1620 and served as the royal residence for King Christian IV (1577-1648).

1560        Giorgio Vasari’s commission for the Uffizi Palace took shape in Florence.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560        Anika Stroganoff began construction of the Annunciation Cathedral in Solvychegodsk, Russia. His grandchildren completed it in 1584.
    (WSJ, 9/7/00, p.A24)

1560        The Church of Scotland was founded. The Presbyterian branch of Protestant Christianity was started by John Knox.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1560        The beginnings of Puritanism appear in England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560        Nicolas Gombert (b.~1495), Flemish composer, died about this time. He was one of the most famous and influential composers between Josquin Desprez and Palestrina, and best represents the fully-developed, complex polyphonic style of this period in music history.
    (SFC, 6/9/09, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Gombert)

1560        The Huguenot conspiracy of Amboise attempted without success to overthrow the Guises, a powerful French ducal line that championed the Catholic cause.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560        In Japan a foundry began making pots and developed to become Nabeya B-tech Kaisha (NBK), a 21st century maker of high-precision machine parts.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.72)

1560        Turkish galleys routed a Spanish fleet off of Tripoli.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560        Giovannin Battista della Porta founded the first scientific society in Naples.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560        King Francis II of France died and was succeeded by Charles IX. Francis’ widow, Mary Queen of Scots decided to return to Scotland.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560        King Gustavus I of Sweden died. He was succeeded by Eric XIV, who courted Queen Elizabeth.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1560        The first blacks set foot in Brazil.
    (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A8)

1560-1609    Oswald Croll, the inventor of the Unguentum Sympatheticum Crolii, a salve for both weapons and wounds.
    (NH, 6/00, p.28)

1561        Jan 22, Sir Francis Bacon (e.1626), English philosopher, was born in London. He was a statesman and essayist. Educated at Cambridge, he served under Queen Elizabeth and King James I. "He wrote the "Essays" throughout his life and these are filled with pithy wisdom and homely charm. His "Advancement of Learning" and "Novum Organon" constitute his most important contribution to knowledge. He held for the inductive method of learning as opposed to the deductive method. The deductive method, according to Bacon, failed because the seeker after knowledge deduced from certain intuitive assumptions conclusions about the real world that might have been logically correct but were not true to nature. The inductive method succeeded because the student of nature ascended by what Bacon called a "ladder of intellect" from the most careful and indeed humble observations to general conclusions that had to be true because their foundation was experience. "If a man will begin in certainties he shall end in doubts; but if he will be content to begin in doubts he shall end in certainties." In 1998 Perez Zagorin published "Francis Bacon."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.140)(AP, 5/1/98)(HN, 1/22/99)
        Bacon also conceived the invention of "idols" to explain the existence of human error. He identified four idols:
    1) The idols of the tribe, i.e. intellectual faults that are common to all human beings (the universal tendency to oversimplify).
    2) The idols of the cave, i.e. errors caused by individual idiosyncrasies.
    3) The idols of the marketplace, caused by the language itself.
    4) The idols of the theater, i.e. philosophical systems that stood in the way of the patient, humble search for truth."
        Bacon suggested that ideas could be classified with an alphabet that represented fundamental notions. "Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability." In 1998 Perez Zagorin published the biography "Francis Bacon." It was Bacon who said that "knowledge is power," (scientia potestas est).
    (Wired, 8/96, p.86)(WSJ, 7/23/98, p.A14)

1561        Jan 28, The Edict of Orleans suspended the persecution of French Huguenots.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1561        Mar 29, Santorio Sanctorius was born in Trieste. He became a physician, and was burned at stake as a heretic.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1561        May, In Montpellier, France, a Calvinist stronghold, the Catholics marched in protest against the Calvinists chanting "We shall dance in spite of the Huguenots." Wars of religion began to rip France apart and lasted for the next 6 decades.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R22)

1561        Aug 19, Mary Queen of Scots arrived in Leith, Scotland, to assume the throne after spending 13 years in France.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1561        Aug 29, Bartholomeus Pitiscus, German mathematician (Trigonometry), was born.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1561        Sep 20, Queen Elizabeth of England signed a treaty at Hamptan Court with French Huguenot leader Louis de Bourbon, the Prince of Conde. The English would occupy Le Harve in return for aiding Bourbon against the Catholics of France.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1561        Sep 23, Philip II of Spain gave orders to halt colonizing efforts in Florida. The French took advantage of the opportunity.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(HN, 9/23/98)

1561        Dec 9, Edwin Sandys, a founder of the Virginia colony, was born.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1561        Ruy Lopez wrote the first manual of chess instruction.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561        Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton, English dramatists, wrote the first known English tragedy, "Gorboduc or Ferrex and Porrex." It marked the first use of blank verse in the English theater.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561        Gabriel Fallopius, wrote one of the first studies in anatomy in "Observationes anatomicae."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561        Santa Cruz (Bolivia) was founded by the Spaniard Nuflo de Chavez as a bulwark against Portuguese expansion.
    (WSJ, 12/6/96, p.A12)

1561        Portuguese monks at Goa introduced printing to India.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561        The Order of the Teutonic Knights in the Baltic States was secularized.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561        The first Calvinist refugees from Flanders, clothworkers, settled in Sandwich, England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561        The Edict of Orleans suspended the persecution of the Huguenots.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1561        A great hurricane ravaged Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula.
    (AM, 7/05, p.49)

1561        The Basilica of St. Basil in Moscow, begun in 1555, was completed under the reign of Ivan the Terrible to celebrate the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan.
    (WSJ, 9/16/06, p.P18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Basil's_Cathedral)

1561        Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Lisbon, sent tobacco seeds and powdered leaves back to France. The word "nicotine" is derived from his name. French diplomat Jean Nicot introduced the use of tobacco to the French court in the 1560s. Tobacco was cultivated and smoked by American Indians long before the arrival of Columbus to the New World. By the 1530s Spanish settlers were cultivating wild tobacco (N. rustica) and exporting it to Europe from the West Indies. Sir Walter Raleigh popularized smoking tobacco in England during the late 1500s. Nicotine, an addictive alkaloid found in tobacco and certain other plants, is named for Nicot, as is the genus name for the tobacco plant, Nicotiana.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(HNQ, 1/24/00)

1561        Philip II moved his court from Toledo to Madrid, which was but a village until this time, and proclaimed Madrid as capital of Spain.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toledo,_Spain)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T11)

1561        Simon Bening, Flemish painter, died. He was known as the best illuminator of his time.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.62)

1561-1598    In Merida, Mexico, the Catedral de San Idelfonso was constructed on the site of a Mayan temple by Spanish conquistadors. It was designed as a stronghold in their struggle to subdue the Maya.
    (SSFC, 5/6/01, p.T6)

1562        Jan 17, French Protestant Huguenots were recognized under the Edict of St. Germain.
    (AP, 1/17/98)

1562        Jan, Mughal Emperor Akbar accepted the submission of Raja Bharmal (Raja Biharimal) of Amber (Jaipur) and welcomed a matrimonial alliance with that Kachhwaha ruling family. Akbar had decided to seek the cooperation of the Rajputs to expand the Mughal Empire. He realized that the Rajputs, who held large areas in their possession and were skillful warriors and renowned for their valor and fidelity to their word, could safely be depended upon and converted into friends.

1562        Feb 5, Michael Radvila the Black accepted homage of G. Ketler, Duke of Couronia, to Sigismund August.
    (LHC, 2/5/03)

1562        Mar 1, Blood bath at Vassy; General de Guise allowed the murder of 1200 Huguenots. The Guises massacred more than 60 Huguenots at a Protestant service at Vassy and sparked off The Wars of Religion in France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(SC, 3/1/02)

1562         Mar 4,The Archdiocese of Riga was attached to Lithuania.
    (LHC, 3/4/03)

1562        Mar 9, Kissing in public was banned in Naples and made punishable by death.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1562        May 1, The 1st French colonists in the US, a 5-vessel Huguenot expedition led by Jean Ribault (1520-1565), landed in Florida. He continued north and established a colony named Charlesfort at Parris Island, SC.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.47)(www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0841765.html)

1562        Jul 23, Gottfried, Gotz von Berlichingen, German Knight of kingdom, died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1562        Sep 17, The Council of Trent took ecclesiastical canon. The Council of Trent (1545-1563) demanded that clarity replace embellishment and display in church music.   
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(MC, 9/17/01)

1562        Oct 9, Gabriel Fallopius, anatomist (discovered fallopian tubes), died in Modena, Italy.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1562        Nov 25, Lope Felix de Vega, dramatist and poet (Angelica, Arcadia), was born in Madrid, Spain.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1562        Dec 19, The French Wars of Religion between the Huguenots and the Catholics began with the Battle of Dreux.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1562        Titian completed the "Rape of Europa" for Philip II of Spain. It is the most celebrated of his erotic mythologies.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

1562        William Turner published a survey of spas in Europe.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562        Gasparo Bartolotti, Italian violin maker, began his career.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562        William Cecil built the first conservatory in England to protect his subtropical plants and trees.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562        A Spanish priest wrote that the well at Chichen Itza was a place where Mayas had made offerings to their gods.
    (ON, 5/02, p.6)

1562        The Univ. of Lille was founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

c1562        Austrian Archduke Maximilian began breeding Spanish Andalusian horses.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.D2)

1562        Milled coins were first introduced in England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562        The Huguenot leader Louis I de Bourbon signed the Treaty of Hampton Court with Queen Elizabeth that called for the English troops to occupy Dieppe and La Havre.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562        In Korea Im Kkok-chong, a righteous outlaw who rose up against the greedy officials and distributed it to the poor, was caught and beheaded. His chivalry and revolutionary ideas captured the admiration of the people and inspired the popular novel: “Hong Kil-tong chon, the Tale of Hong Kil-Tong," written in the early 17th century by the scholar Ho Kyun.

1562        Emp. Ferdinand I signed an 8-year truce with Suleiman I of Turkey.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562        John Hawkins, English naval commander, removed 300 African slaves from a Portuguese ship bound for Brazil. This marked the start of the English participation in the slave trade.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563        Jan 1, The Great Plague of London began about this time. From the 1st January to end of December, 17,404 people died of the plague.

1563        Feb 15, Ivan IV led Russian forces in the takeover of Polocka, defended under the leadership of Stanislav Davaina.
    (LHC, 2/15/03)

1563        Feb 18, Huguenot Jean Poltrot de Merde shot French Gen. Francois De Guise (44).
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1563        Feb 27, William Byrd, English composer, was appointed organist at Lincoln Cathedral.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(MC, 2/27/02)

1563        Mar 19, The Peace of Amboise granted Rights for Huguenots.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1563        Apr 30, Jews were expelled from France by order of Charles VI.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1563        Jun 1, Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, Chief Minister of England, was born.
    (HN, 6/1/98)

1563        Oct 13, Francesco Caracciolo, Italian religious founder and saint (Caracciolini), was born.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1563        Pieter Breughel the Elder, great Flemish artist, painted the "Tower of Babel." [see 1568-1625]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(WSJ, 2/18/00, p.W12)

1563        The Council of Trent ordered a repainting of the "The Last Judgement" by Michelangelo to cloth many of the frescos' previously nude figures.
    (SFC, 1/21/04, p.D2)

1563        Foxe’s "Book of Martyrs" appeared in its first illustrated English edition.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563        The 1563 Canterbury Convocation drastically revised the Forty-two Articles of the Church of England. The 39 Articles combined Protestant doctrine with Catholic church organization to establish the Church of England. Dissenting groups included the Puritans, Separatists, and Presbyterians. [see 1571]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(HNQ, 10/20/98)

1563        The Jesuits lead the Counter-Reformation from Bavaria.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563        In Turin the Istituto Bancario San Paolo di Torino was established with a system of ownership under a charitable foundation under the control of local authorities. The system held into 1997.
    (WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A14)
1563        Francesco Salviati (b.1510), Italian Mannerist painter from Florence, died. His work included frescoes on the walls of the Palazzo Farnese.

1563        Maximilian II was elected King of Hungary.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563        Frederick II of Denmark allied to Poland, Lubeck, and Saxony against Sweden to start the Seven Years’ War.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563        The Peace of Amboise ended the First War of Religion in France. Huguenots gained limited tolerance. The French regain La Havre from the English.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563        Gerardus Mercator, Flemish geographer, produced the first detailed map of Lorraine.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1563-1727    In Prestonpans, Scotland, 81 people were convicted and executed for being witches. In 2004 they were officially pardoned.
    (WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)(http://forejustice.org/wc/sp/scottish_pardons.html)

1564        Feb 15, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei (d.1642) was born in Pisa. He was the first modern man to understand that mathematics can truly describe the physical world. He said: "The Book of Nature is written in mathematics." [V.D.-H.K. dated his death to 1646] He ran afoul of the Catholic Church for defending the Copernican system, which maintained that the earth revolves around the sun. He died in Acetri, near Florence.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.1200) (TNG,Klein,p.22) (AHD,p.539) (CFA, '96,Vol 179, p.40) (AP, 2/15/98) (HN, 2/15/99)

1564        Feb 18, Michelangelo (b.1475), painter and sculptor, died in Rome. In 1996 George Bull wrote a biography and in 1999 James H. Beck published "Three Worlds of Michelangelo." In 2003 Ross King authored "Michelangelo & the Pope’s Ceiling." In 2005 James Hall authored “Michelangelo and the Reinvention of the Human Body." In 2013 Martin Gayford authored “Michelangelo: His Epic Life."
    (AP, 2/18/98)(SFEC, 3/14/99, BR p.6)(SSFC, 1/26/03, p.M3)(SSFC, 6/26/05, p.C5)(Econ, 12/14/13, p.91)

1564        Feb 26, Christopher Marlowe (d.1593), English, poet, dramatist, was baptized. His work included "Doctor Faustus," "Tamburlaine," "The Jew of Malta," and other plays. He was murdered at 29 in a Deptford tavern and was suspected of being a spy to the Continent on behalf of the Crown. In 1993 Anthony Burgess had a novel published posthumously about Marlowe titled "A Dead Man in Deptford."
    (WSJ, 4/28/95, p.A-8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Marlowe)

1564        Mar 9, David Fabricius, astronomer (discovered variable star), was born in Essen, Germany.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1564          Mar 13, Zigmantas Augustas gave over to Poland his rights to Lithuania and supported the Warsaw parliament recess and summons for the 1st representatives on talks regarding union.
    (LHC, 3/13/03)

1564        Apr 23, William Shakespeare (1564-1616), English poet and playwright of the Elizabethan and early Jacobin periods, was born and died on the same date 52 years later. He added more than 1,700 word to the English language. He was the son of an illiterate glove maker who left school at 12: "Be not afraid of greatness: some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them." -- from Act II, Scene 5 of "Twelfth Night." From "Henry V," "Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more."
    (CFA, '96, p.44)(WSJ, 4/22/96, p.a-23)(AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)

1564        Apr 26, William Shakespeare was baptized.
    (HN, 4/26/98)

1564        May 27, John Calvin (54), one of the dominant figures of the Protestant Reformation, died in Geneva.
    (HN, 5/27/99)(MC, 5/27/02)

1564        Jun 22, A 3-ship French expedition under René de Laudonnière arrived in Florida and built Fort Caroline.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.47)(www.cla.sc.edu/sciaa/staff/depratterc/chas2.html)

1564        Jul 25, Maximillian II became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1564        Aug 18, Spanish king Philip II joined the Council of Trent.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1564        Sep 13, On the verge of attacking Pedro Menendez's Spanish settlement at San Agostin, Florida, Jean Ribault's French fleet was scattered by a devastating storm.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1564        Oct 3, Christophorus Fabritius, [Christoffel Smit], Calvinist vicar, was burned at the stake.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1564        Oct 15, Andreas Vesalius (b.1514), Flemish anatomist, died. Andreas Vesalius, the father of modern anatomy, was forced by the Inquisition to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He disappeared during the voyage. In 1543 he authored of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Vesalius)

1564        Oct 18, John Hawkins began his 2nd trip to America.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1564        Dec 31, Willem of Orange demanded freedom of conscience and religion.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1564        The Peace of Troyes ended the war between England and France with England renouncing its claim to Calais for a substantial payment.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564        Emp. Ferdinand I died. He was succeeded by his son Maximilian II.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564        Ivan IV was forced by the Russian nobles (Boyars) to withdraw from Moscow.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564        Spaniards occupied the Philippines and built Manila.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564        The Council of Trent ended with the Pope promulgating profesio fidei, the final definition of Roman Catholicism.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564        The Counter-Reformation extended to Poland.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564        John Calvin, Protestant leader, died in Geneva.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564        Andrea Amati (d.1577), Italian violin maker, made one of the first of his famous violins in Cremona. Stradivari was one of his students.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(AMNHDT, 5/98)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.78)

1564        The first horse-drawn coach was introduced to England from Holland.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564        France adopted the reformed calendar and shifted the new year from April to Jan. Some didn't like the change and were called April fools.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)

1564        In Mexico the monastery of Tecpatan was founded in southern Chiapas state.
    (SSFC, 10/18/15, p.A5)

1564-1651    Abraham Bloemaert, Dutch artist and teacher of Hendrick ter Brugghen.
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)

1565        Mar 1, Spanish occupier Estacio de Sá founded Rio de Janeiro. He destroyed the existing French colony.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(SC, 3/1/02)

1565        Apr 27, First Spanish settlement in Philippines was established in Cebu City.
    (HN, 4/27/98)
1565        May 19-Sep 8, In Malta the Great Siege lasted over this period as Suleyman the Magnificent sought to add the island to his conquests. The Turkish army of 40,000 men besieged the Knights of Malta, led by Grand Master Jean de la Valette, at their garrison, St. Elmo. The defenders numbered 540 knights, 400 Spanish troops, and Maltese gentry. In the initial attack 200 of 260 defenders lay dead at the end of the day but the garrison held out. The Turks continued their efforts for four months when reinforcements arrived and saved them. The arrival of a fleet from Spain, the “Gran Soccorso," turned the tide. This halted the westward advance of Islam in the Mediterranean. St. Elmo was later transformed into Valletta, the capital of Malta. The Order of St. John continues to thrive to today.
    (HNQ, 4/8/99)(WSJ, 12/30/94, p.A-6)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1565        Jul 29, Mary Queen of Scots married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(MC, 7/29/02)

1565        Aug 28, A Spanish expedition under Pedro Menendez de Aviles arrived at an inlet on the Florida coast on the feast day of St. Augustine and gave the theologian’s name to the encampment.
    (WSJ, 7/17/08, p.W8)

1565        Sep 8, A Spanish expedition under Pedro Menendez de Aviles established the first permanent European colony in the present day St. Augustine, Fla. Aviles founded St. Augustine on the site of the Timucuan Indian village of Seloy, 42 years before the English settled at Jamestown and 55 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. St. Augustine, Florida is the oldest permanent European settlement in the US. Castillo de San Marco fortress was built by the Spanish to defend St. Augustine.
    (AP, 9/8/97)(NG, March 1990, p.117)(WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)(WSJ, 5/21/98, p.A1)

1565        Sep 20, A Spanish fleet under Pedro Menendez de Aviles wiped out some 350 Frenchmen at Fort Caroline, in Florida. Spanish forces under Pedro Menendez massacred a band of French Huguenots that posed a potential threat to Spanish hegemony in the area. They also took advantage of the local Timucuan Indian tribe. Artist Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues managed to escape and return to France, where he painted watercolors depicting the local botany. His alleged paintings of Indians living nearby were later thrown into question.
    (WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)(Arch, 1/05, p.47)(WSJ, 7/18/08, p.W8)(Arch, 5/05, p.31)(Arch, 1/06, p.25)

1565        Sep 28, Alessandro Tassoni, political writer (Rape of Bucket), was born in Modena, Italy.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1565        Oct 8, Spanish Friar Andres de Urdaneta arrived in Acapulco after  sailing as far as 38 degrees North latitude to obtain favorable winds. 14 of the crew died on the voyage from the Philippines. During the voyage he sighted land believed to be the California coast. His route became famous and trusted for sailing from Manila to Acapulco and became known as the Manila galleon. In 1939 William Lytle Schurz authored “The Manila Galleon." 
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%A9s_de_Urdaneta)    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A25)(SFC, 2/7/15, p.D1)

1565        Dec 9, Pius IV (66), [Gianangelo de' Medici], Italian Pope (1559-65), died.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1565        Dec 18, Benedetto Varchi (62), Italian humanist and historian (L'Ercolano), died.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1565        Pieter Breughel the Elder received a commission for a series of paintings called "The Months." Five survive including "Hunters in the Snow."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1565        Tintoretto (c.1518-1594) created his “Crucifixion," later considered the single best example of Italian Renaissance religious art.
    (WSJ, 9/22/07, p.W10)

1565        The Vasari corridor was built in Florence to connect the Pitti Palace with the Uffizi Gallery. In 1664 Leopoldo de Medici began a collection of artists’ self-portraits and housed them in the corridor.
    (Econ, 5/26/07, p.100)

1565        Palladio finished S. Giorgio Maggiore Church in Venice.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1565        The bouree, derived from a traditional French clog dance, was introduced at the French court Catherine de’Medici.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1565        Pedro Menendez de Aviles, Spanish Florida’s 1st governor, led an expedition to the Calusa and stationed a small garrison at Calos. The garrison withdrew in 1568.
    (AM, 11/04, p.50)

1565        The Royal College of Physicians in London was officially permitted to carry out human dissections.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)
1565        Pencils were first manufactured in England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1565        Venetian Fernand Berteli drew a large body of water in the St. Lawrence Valley on his map "A Complete Description of the Whole Known World."
    (LSA, Spring 1995, p.6)

1565        Elizabeth I of England granted the nobleman Hellier de Carteret the island fiefdom of Sark, which included the island of Brecqhou in the English Channel.
    (SFC, 8/10/96, p.A10)

1565        In India Akbar had the Red Fort built in Agra along the Yamuna River.
    (HT, 4/97, p.22)

1565        The Iglesia de San Roque was built in Campeche, Mexico.
    (SSFC, 1/25/09, p.E5)

1565        Philip II of Spain sent Miguel Lopez de Legazpi  and 1,000 mercenaries from Mexico to wrest the Philippines from Muslim sultans, who had ruled since the 12th century.
    (SFC, 7/7/03, p.A6)

1566        Feb 13, St. Augustine, Florida, was established. [see Sep 8, 1565]
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1566        Mar 9, David Riccio, Italian singer, secretary, lover of Mary Stuart, was murdered.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1566        May 10, Leonhard Fuchs (65), German botanist, died.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1566          Mar 11, The 2nd Lithuanian statutes went into effect and upheld a democracy of landowners. The Statute of Lithuania gave the Seimas legislative power. The parliament had developed since Casimir ascended to the Polish throne. It was composed of an upper chamber or Council of Lords and assemblies of noblemen. They assembled in Vilnius or Brest-Litovsk.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LHC, 3/11/03)

1566        Jun 19, King James I (d.1625 at 59), son of Mary Queen of Scots, was born. James, aka King James VI of Scotland ruled Scotland from 1567-25 and England from 1603-25.
    (WUD, 1994, p.763)(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)(DTnet, 6/19/97)(HN, 6/19/99)

1566        Jul 2, French astrologer, physician and prophet Nostradamus died in Salon.
    (AP, 7/2/97)

1566        Aug 25, Iconoclastic fury began in the Dutch province of Utrecht. Fanatical Calvinists instigated religious riots in the Netherlands.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566        Sep 7, Suleiman I (b.1494), Great Law Giver and sultan of Turkey (1520-66), died at Szigetvar, Hungary, as his troops besieged a fortress defended by Croatian-Hungarian nobleman Miklos Zrinyi. Suleiman’s great empire began a gradual decline under his slothful son, Selim II. Suleiman the Magnificent, during his reign, had commissioned the architect Sinan to build the Suleymanye, perhaps the finest mosque ever constructed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24)(SFC, 9/21/13, p.A3)

1566        Nov 10, Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of Essex, cousin and lover of Elizabeth I, was born.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1566        Dec 1, Spanish king Philip II named Fernando Alvarez, duke of Alba.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1566        Dec 30, Alessandro Piccinini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1566        Gerolamo Bassano (d.1621), Italian artist, was born. His work included “The Sepulchre." It was based on a larger altarpiece painted in 1574 by his father Jacopo Bassano and Francesco Bassano. In 2006 the Washington County Museum of Fine Arts in Maryland commissioned an x-ray of the work and found that it hid a portrait of a man in Renaissance clothing.
    (SFC, 5/12/06, p.E9)(www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/bassano/)   

1566        Pieter Breughel the Elder painted the "Peasant Wedding Dance."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566        G. Blundeville published his "Foure Chiefest Offices Belonging to Horsemanship." It was a pioneering manual of veterinary science.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566        Japanese music began to win its individual character with the popularization of national forms of vertical bamboo pipe (shakuhachi), three-stringed guitar (samisen), and zither (koto).
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566        The Stari Most (Old Bridge) was built over the Neretva River in Bosnia. It gave the city of Mostar (bridge keeper) its name. It was destroyed in 1993 by Bosnian Croat artillery. An annual diving contest was held off the bridge since it was built. In 2004 the bridge was reopened.
    (SFC, 5/15/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A1)(Econ, 11/26/05, p.64)
1566        A Serbian Orthodox monastery was built in Zitomislic, Bosnia. It was destroyed in 1992 during the Bosnian War, but was rebuilt and reopened in May 2005.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.64)

1566        During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the Knole manor house in west Kent came into the possession of her cousin Thomas Sackville (1536-1608) whose descendants the Earls and Dukes of Dorset and Barons Sackville have lived there since 1603 (the intervening years saw the house let to the Lennard family). Thomas Sackville was the first Earl of Dorset and Lord Treasurer to Elizabeth I and James I. In 2010 Robert Sackville-West authored “Inheritance: The Story of Knole and the Sackvilles."
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.70)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knole_House)
1566        The Lamb and Flag pub first opened in Oxford and was moved to its present location on St Giles, a broad thoroughfare in the city center, in 1613. The pub, owned by St John's College, planned to close on Jan. 31, 2021, due to disastrous revenue losses because of the coronavirus pandemic.
    (AP, 1/25/21)

1566        Two sons of Cortes, both named Martin Cortes, were arrested in Mexico for purportedly fomenting a rebellion against the Spanish crown. In 2004 Anna Lanyon authored “The New World of Martin Cortes."
    (SSFC, 7/11/04, p.M3)

1566        Akbar began the construction of the Lahore Fort in northern Pakistan.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.C)

1566        Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss theologian, sought to combine Calvinism with Zwinglianism in his "Helvetian Confession."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566        Cardinal Michaele Ghislieri was elected Pope Pius V.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566        Regent Margaret abolished the Inquisition.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566        The Turko-Hungarian War restarted despite the truce of 1562.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566        The Spanish made contact with Calusa Indians at a major village in what is now Pineland, Florida.
    (AM, adv. circular, p.2)
1566        Spanish conquistador Juan Pardo arrived the Spanish settlement at Santa Elena, on what later became known as Parris Island, South Carolina. He marched into the interior and founded Fort San Juan next to a Catawba town called Joara. Fort San Juan was burned down by the Catawba after about 18 months. Santa Elena was the first capital of Spanish colonial Florida.
    (Sm, 3/06, p.33)(SFC, 7/27/16, p.A6)

1566        Sir Francis Drake visited an island off Roanoke, Va., with a ship full of Turkish prisoners. Only half the prisoners were recorded as taken back to England.
    (WSJ, 4/14/97, p.B5)

1566        One of the world’s first newspapers, "Notizie Scritte," appeared in Venice.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1566        Bartolome de Las Casas (b.1474), “Apostle to the Indians," died in Madrid, Spain.

1566-1572    Pius V (b. 1504) led the Catholic Church.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1566-1574    Selim II followed Suleiman I in the Ottoman House of Osman.
    (Ot, 1993, xvii)

1566-1638    Joachim Wytawael (Wtewael), Dutch mannerist painter.
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.13)(SFEM, 9/17/00, p.96)   

1567        Feb 9, Henry Stuart, earl of Darnley, Lord Darnley, the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, was murdered in his sick-bed in a house in Edinburgh when the house blew up. In 2003 Alison Weir authored "Mary, Queen of the Scots, and the Murder of Lord Darnley."
    (HN, 2/9/99)(MC, 2/9/02)(WSJ, 5/1/03, D10)

1567        Apr 11, Dutch Prince William of Orange fled from Antwerp to Breda.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1567        May 1, Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt, Dutch royal painter, was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1567        May 15, Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (d.1643), musician and composer (L'Orfeo), was born in Cremona, Italy. He marked the beginning of the Baroque Era in music.
    (LGC-HCS, p.25)(WUD, 1994, p.928)(MC, 5/15/02)
1567        May 15, Mary, Queen of Scots married James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell.

1567        Jun 11, At Borthwick Castle a thousand Scottish nobles cornered Mary, Queen of Scots, who fled the castle by jumping out the window, disguised as a pageboy. The nobles cornered the newly-wed Mary and her third husband, the dubious James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell. They demanded Bothwell's head and Mary’s renunciation of the Earl and his influence. Bothwell, a suspect in the murder of Queen Mary’s second husband, Lord Darnley, just a few months before, fled the castle’s sheltering 110-foot towers and the asylum offered by the 6th Lord Borthwick, leaving his wife and queen behind.
    (HNQ, 4/13/01)

1567        Jun 15, Genoa expelled the Jews. [see Apr 2, 1550]
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1567        Jun 16, Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle in Scotland.
    (AP, 6/16/98)

1567        Jun 20, Jews were expelled from Brazil by order of regent Don Henrique.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1567        Jul 24, Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned and forced to abdicate her throne to her 1-year-old son James VI.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1567        Aug 8, Duke of Alba's army entered Brussels, Belgium.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1567        Sep 9, Lomaraal, Count van Egmont and Philip van Hoorne, were arrested by Alba.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1567        Oct 6, The Duke of Alba became guardian of the Netherlands. Spain’s Duke of Alba arrived in Brussels at the head of a 10,000 troops to quell the iconoclastic riots.
    (MC, 10/6/01)(WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1567            Nov 10, In the Battle at St. Denis the French government army faced the Huguenots. Catholic duke François I of Condé (1530-1569) managed to sustain his position against a numerically larger force of Huguenots (French Protestants). The Huguenots had started a second War of Religion in France with the Conspiracy of Meaux led by Condé and Duke Anne of Montmorency (1493?-1567). Montmorency lost his life at St. Denis.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(DoW, 1999, p.390)

1567        Samuel de Champlain, French explorer (Lake Champlain), was born. Later evidence suggested that he was more likely born about 1580.

1567        El Greco (1541-1614) arrived in Venice as a painter if icons in the hieratic, late-Byzantine style.
    (WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)

1567        The Metropolitan Cathedral was begun in Mexico City. It took 250 years to complete.
    (Hem., 1/96, p.26)

1567        Longleat House was begun. It shows the impetus of the Reformation on English domestic architecture.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1567        The Catholic Church outlawed the outright sale of indulgences.
    (WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A1)

1567        Maximilian II established a monastery council to superintend the clergy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1567        Laurence Sheriff founded the Rugby school in England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1567        Mary, Queen of Scots, played one of the 1st recorded games of golf at Seton Castle. In 2005 the 14-bedroom castle was put on the market asking $27 million.
    (SFC, 8/31/05, p.C2)

1567        The Duke of Alva, a military commander under Philip II of Spain, arrived in the Netherlands as a military governor and began a reign of terror. Margaret of Parma resigned the regency.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1567        Typhoid fever swept through parts of South America and killed more than two million Indians.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)   

1567        Alvaro Mendana de Neyra, Spanish explorer, discovered the Solomon Islands.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1567-1619    In China "The Investiture of the Gods" or "The Creation of the Gods," also known by its Chinese names Fengshen Yanyi, was first published in book form. Xu Zhonglin, a Chinese writer who lived in the Ming dynasty, was the author.

1568        Jan 24, In Netherlands Duke of Alba declared (future King) William of Orange an outlaw.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1568        Feb 16, A sentence of the Holy Office condemned all the inhabitants of the Netherlands to death as heretics. From this universal doom only a few persons, especially named, were acquitted.

1568        Feb 17, Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian II agreed to pay tribute to the Sultan for peace.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1568        Mar 9, Aloysius "Luigi" van Gonzaga, Italian prince, Jesuit, saint, was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1568        Mar 23, Treaty of Longjumeau: French Huguenots went on strike.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1568        Apr 16, The first recorded sighting of Tulagi Island by Europeans was by the Spanish expedition of Álvaro de Mendaña. More precisely the sighting was due to a local voyage done by a small boat, in the accounts the brigantine Santiago, commanded by Maestre de Campo Pedro Ortega Valencia and having Hernán Gallego as pilot.

1568        May 3, French forces in Florida slaughter hundreds of Spanish.
    (HN, 5/3/98)

1568        May 11, Christian I, ruler of Anhalt-Bernburg (Battle of White Mountain), was born.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1568        May 13, Mary Queen of Scots was defeated by English at battle of Langside, south of Glasgow.

1568        May 16, Mary Queen of Scotland fled to England.

1568        May 19, Defeated by the Protestants, Mary, Queen of Scots, fled to England where Queen Elizabeth imprisoned her.
    (HN, 5/19/99)`

1568        Jun 1, Duke of Alba beheaded 18 nobles in Brussels. (MC, 6/1/02)

1568        Jun 4, Lamoraal, Count Egmont, prince of Gavere, was beheaded in Brussels for opposition to the Spanish Inquisition. He became a heroic figure in Goethe's play and Beethoven's musical setting. Philips van Montmorency comte d'Horn, admiral, statesman, was also beheaded along with 18 other leaders of the Flemish opposition.
    (PCh, 1992, p.195)(MC, 6/5/02)

1568        Jun 5, Ferdinand, the Duke of Alba, crushed the Calvinist insurrection in Ghent [Belgium].
    (HN, 6/5/98)

1568        Jul 13, Alexander Nowell, the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral, perfected a way to bottle beer.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(MC, 7/13/02)

1568        Jul 23, Don Carlos (c23), son of Spanish king Philip II, died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1568        Sep 5, Tommasso Campanella, Italian philosopher and poet, who wrote "City of the Sun," was born.
    (HN, 9/5/98)

1568        Sep 30, Eric XIV, king of Sweden, was deposed after showing signs of madness. The Swedes declared Eric XIV unfit to reign and proclaimed John III king.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(HN, 9/30/98)

1568        Oct 5, The Conference of York began in the trial against Mary Stuart.
    (MC, 10/5/01)
1568        Oct 5, Willem of Orange's army occupied Brabant.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1568        The "Shahnameh" by Firdawsi, as commissioned by Shah Tahmasp was given to the Ottoman Sultan Selim II. By 1903 it was in the hand of Baron Edmond de Rothschild.
    (WSJ, p. A-18, 10/13/94)

1568        Archbishop Matthew Parker supervised the "Bishop’s Bible," which was published in opposition to the popular (Calvinistic, 1560) Geneva Bible.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1568        Il Gesu, the mother church of the Jesuit order, was begun in Rome.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1568        The Spanish Riding School in Vienna began operating and became world famous for their Lipizzaners, white horses.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, p.T5)

1568        Emp. Maximilian bought peace from Selim II and the Sultan received a large annual payment.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1568        Leaders of the Flemish opposition to the Spanish Inquisition were beheaded as traitors in Brussels.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1568        General Oda Nobunaga, Japanese leader who seized Kyoto and destroyed the power of the feudal lords, introduced a dynamic period of centralization and expansion.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1568        Gasparo da Salo began making violins at Brescia.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)   

1568        Constanzo Varoli, Italian anatomist, studied the anatomy of the human brain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1568        In Rome Aonio Paleario, poet and protestant-style reformer, was burned at the stake by Pius V for posting a poem on a statue, a practice that was called the "talking statue" (Pasquino): "You’d think it was winter – the way Pius is burning Christians, - like so many logs on the fire. – He must be getting himself ready – to enjoy the flames of Hell.
    (WSJ, 5/3/01, p.A16)

1568        The "Shahnameh" (Persian Book of Kings-1520-1530) by Firdawsi was given to the Ottoman Sultan. It was commissioned to be illustrated for Shah Tahmasp by more than a dozen artists. 258 miniatures were made with 750 folios of Farsi text in it.
    (WSJ, p. A-18, 10/13/94)

1568-1600    The Azuchi-Momoyama Period in Japan.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1568-1625    Jan Breughel, the Elder, a son of Pieter Breughel, painted the "teeming textures of normal existence."
    (WSJ, 2/18/00, p.W12)

1568-1634    In Portugal the Jail Cleaning Yard of the Inquisition Court in Evora was in active use during this period. In 2015 researchers found a dozen skeletons in the garbage dump and suspected they were Jewish victims of the Portuguese Inquisition.
    (AP, 8/19/15)

1568-1648    The Eighty Years' War, or Dutch Revolt was the secession war in which the proto-Netherlands first became an independent country and in which the region now known as Belgium became established. It was carried on by the Calvinist and predominantly mercantile Dutch provinces.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War)

1569        Jan 11, The 1st recorded lottery in England was drawn in St Paul's Cathedral.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1569        Feb 7, King Philip II ordered the inquisition in South America.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1569          Feb 28, The Lithuanian delegation pulled out of union talks with Poland and departed Lublin.
    (LHC, 2/28/03)

1569          Mar 12, Zigmantas Augustas broke away from Lithuania and attached Volinija and Palenki to Poland.
    (LHC, 3/12/03)

1569        Mar 13, Count of Anjou defeated the Huguenots at the Battle of Jarnac. Louis Conde, French prince, co-leader of Huguenots, died in battle.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1569        Apr 3, Giovanni Battista Massarengo, composer, was born.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1569        May 10, John of Avila (b.1500), Spanish minister and writer, died. He became the patron saint of Spain's diocesan clergy and was considered one of the greatest preachers of his time. He was canonized in 1970. In 2012 Pope Benedict XVI named him as a “doctor" of the Catholic church.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Avila)(AP, 8/20/11)(AP, 10/7/12)

1569        Jul 1, The Lublin Union was signed and direct rule over Lithuania was passed to Poland. Lithuania maintained certain ministers, laws, money and an army. The territories of Volinija, Kiev and Podolija were transferred to Polish rule.
    (H of L, 1931, p.72-74)(LC, 1998, p.20)
1569        Jul 1, Latvia Parliament accepted the Union of Lublin and was incorporated into Poland.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1569        Aug 27, Pope Pius named Cosimo I de' Medici, grand duke of Toscane.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1569        Sep 5, Pieter Breughel, South Netherlands (Flemish) painter, died at about 44.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1569        Oct 3, Battle of Montcontour the Duke of Anjou beat the Huguenots.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1569        Nov 16, Paul Sartorius, composer, was born.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1569        Dec 9, Martinus de Porres, saint (patron of social justice), was born in Peru.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1569        Dec 18, Jakob Hassler, composer, was born.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1569        Dec 23, St. Philip, metropolitan of Moscow, was martyred by Ivan the Terrible.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1569        Alfonso de Ercilla y Zuniga published about this time the first part of a Spanish epic on the conquest of Chile, "La Araucana."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1569        In England a rebellion by 7,000 people in favor of the pope was brutally suppressed.
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.67)

1569        Burmese King Bayinnaung invaded Thailand and took as hostage Princess Suphankalaya. It was later believed that the princess gave up her freedom in exchange for her kingdom's independence from Burma. In 1999 The Thai government offered to help Burma restore a palace in exchange for information about the princess.
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, p.A11)

1569        Lithuania and Poland formed the Union of Lublin for protection against the growing power of Muscovite Russia. The new federation established an elective monarchy and Lithuania lost its separate institutions and was gradually submerged into Poland as a province. The Union of Lublin merged Lithuania, Poland and Lublin under Sigismund II of Poland.
    (Compuserve, Online Encyclopedia)(TL-MB, 1988, p.21)
1569        Don John of Austria put down the Morisco rebellion in Granada.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1569        Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, built a quadrant measuring 5.8 meters, and a celestial globe with a diameter of 1.5 meters at Augsburg.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1569        Gerhardus Mercator (1512-1594), Flemish geographer, produced his "Map of the World" for the use of navigators on the projection that bears his name to this day. He was the first to use the term "atlas" for a collection of maps. In 2004 Andrew Taylor authored “The World of Gerard Mercator."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(WSJ, 11/5/04, p.W9)

1569-1583    In India Akbar was informed by a holy man that he would soon be a father. A Muslim wife bore him a son and Akbar built a walled city, Fatehpur Siskri, in Sikri, the home village of the holy man. The local water table could not meet the demands of the city and after about 14 years the capital was moved back to Agra.
    (HT, 4/97, p.23)

1570        Jan 2, Tsar Ivan the Terrible began a march to Novgorod.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1570        Jan 9, Ivan the Terrible killed 1000-2000 residents of Novgorod. Ivan the Terrible, Tsar of Muscovy, sacked the city of Great Novgorod, massacring most of its inhabitants during a five-week reign of terror.
    (TL-MB, p.22)(MC, 1/9/02)

1570        Feb 25, Pope Pius V issued the bull Regnans in Excelsis which excommunicated Queen Elizabeth the First of England. This absolved her subjects from allegiance. Elizabeth responded by hanging and burning Jesuits.
    (TL-MB, p.22)(AP, 2/25/98)(HN, 2/25/99)(MC, 2/25/02)

1570        Mar 4, Spain’s King Philip II banned foreign Dutch students.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1570        Apr 14, Polish Calvinists, Lutherans, Hernhutters unified against the Jesuits.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1570        Apr 24, Spanish troops battled followers of Sultan Suleiman.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1570        Apr 27, Pope Pius V excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I [see Feb 25].
    (AP, 4/27/07)

1570        Jul 3, Antonio Paleario (67), Italian humanist, was executed by the inquisition.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1570        Aug 8, Charles IX of France signed the Treaty of St. Germain (Peace of St. Germain-en-Laye), ending the third war of religion and giving religious freedom to the Huguenots.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(HN, 8/8/98)

1570        Nov 2, A tidal wave in the North Sea destroyed the sea walls from Holland to Jutland. Over a thousand people are killed.
    (HN, 11/2/98)(www.metoffice.com/education/secondary/students/flood.html)

1570        Dec 5, Johan Friis, chancellor of Denmark (b.1532), died. his share of spoliated Church property had made him one of the wealthiest men in Denmark. Under King Frederick II (1559-1588), who understood but little of state affairs, Friis was well-nigh omnipotent. He was largely responsible for the Scandinavian Seven Years' War (1562-1570), which did so much to exacerbate the relations between Denmark and Sweden.

1570        Dec 15, The Peace of Stettin was concluded in Livonia. Denmark recognized the independence of Sweden in the Peace of Stettin. Sweden gave up her claim to Norway.
    (TL-MB, p.22)(http://depts.washington.edu/baltic/papers/livonianwar.htm)

c1570        Pieter Bruegel the Elder created his paintings "Spring" and "Summer."
    (WSJ, 10/1/01, p.A22)
1570        El Greco (1541-1614) arrived in Rome where he resisted and absorbed the lessons of Michelangelo. He stayed for a half dozen years and settled in Toledo, Spain, in 1577.
    (WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)
1570        Nicholas Hilliard painted his famous portrait of Elizabeth I.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1570        Melchior Lorch made an ink drawing.
    (SFEM, 6/29/97, p.4)
1570        Jacopo Zucchi, a mannerist artist, painted "The Bath of Bathsheba."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)
1570        George Owen wrote his "History of Pembrokeshire," wherein he clearly set forth the orderly principle of geological stratigraphy; but the work was not published until 1796.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.7)
1570        "The Scholemaster," a treatise on education by the English scholar Roger Ascham, was published posthumously.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1570        Palladio published "I Quattro Libri dell’Architettura," a summary of classical architecture.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1570        The Convento de Penha was built on a 164-meter cliff overlooking Vitoria in the state of Espiritu Santo, Brazil.
    (USA Today, OW, 4/22/96, p.13)

1570        The Whitechapel Bell Foundry was founded in London, England. Philadelphia’s Liberty Bell was later cast there. Big Ben was cast there in 1858. In 2016 the company announced that it would close in May 2017.
    (http://tinyurl.com/jxfxhd7)(SFC, 4/11/08, p.A16)

1570        The Berlin Staatskapelle formed. In 2004 it performed Schumann in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 1/14/04, p.D3)

1570        In Carrara, Italy, Alberigo, son of the mad Marquis Alberigo Cybo Malaspina, Lord of Carrara, inaugurated the use of gunpowder for quarrying marble.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, p.T4)

1570        The Japanese opened the port of Nagasaki to overseas trade.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1570        Lutherans, Calvinists and Moravian brethren united against the Jesuits in Poland in the Consensus of Sendomir.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1570        Seville, Spain, by this time stood as the 3rd largest city in Europe, behind Rome and Venice, as it reaped the rewards of trade rights, granted in 1503, with the New World.
    (SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M4)
1570        Spanish Jesuits established the Ajacan mission on the York River, a few miles from Jamestown would be established 37 years later. The priests were all killed in 1571 and the site was abandoned.
    (AH, 6/07, p.31)

1570        In Switzerland the hotel Crusch Alva in Zuoz in the Engadine dates back to this time.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.28)

1570        The Mexican city of Vallodalid, later Morelia, was laid out.
    (SSFC, 11/17/02, p.C11)

1570        Jul 3, The Turks began their attack on Nicosia, Cyprus, after Venice refused to surrender the island.

1570        Sep 23, The Turks began their attack on Famagusta, Cyprus, which was fortified by Venetian commander Marcantonio Bragadino (1523-1571).
    (http://historicbiography.blogspot.com/2008/01/marcantonio-bragadin.html)(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)
1570-1612    The first modern atlas, Theatrum orbis terrarum, was published by Abraham Ortelius of Amsterdam in 1570. The Flemish mapmaker compiled it using the best maps available and issued dozens of editions in this period. [see 1602]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(WSJ,11/24/95, p.B-8)

1570-1628    Salamone Rossi, Jewish court composer in Mantua.
    (SFC, 2/28/98, p.B3)

1570-1670    Portuguese forces attacked Monomutapa in order to gain control over the markets and gold mines there. The Portuguese forces suffered losses to malaria and their conquest was unsuccessful. For the next 100 years they continued to promote civil wars and weakened the Monomutapa power. By the late 1600s the southern kingdoms were able to conquer Monomutapa completely.
    (ATC, p.148)

1571        Jan 27, Shah Abbas, King of the Safavid dynasty in Persia (1587-1629), was born. He established a monopoly on the production and sale of silk and used the wealth to develop the city of Isfahan. Fearful of assassination he turned on his own family, executed one son, and blinded 2 sons, his father and his brothers.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(http://4dw.net/royalark/Persia/safawi3.htm)

1571        Feb 2, All eight members of a Jesuit mission in Virginia were murdered by Indians who pretended to be their friends.
    (HN, 2/2/99)

1571        Feb 9, Algonquin Indians attacked the Jesuit mission on the Virginia peninsula killing Fr. Juan Bautista de Segura and 4 other remaining priests.
    (AH, 2/06, p.15)

1571        Feb 14, Benvenuto Cellini (b.1500), Florentine goldsmith and sculptor, writer (Perseus), died. His 1545 autobiography greatly influenced the Renaissance.
    (HN, 11/1/00)(WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)(www.boglewood.com/cornaro/xcellini.html)

1571        Feb 15, Michael Praetorius, composer (Syntagma music), was born in Kreuzberg, Germany.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1571        Mar 19, Spanish troops occupied Manila. [see May 19]
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1571        May 19, Miguel Lopez de Lagazpi founded the city of Manila in the Philippines and encountered Chinese settlements. [see Mar 19]
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)(WSJ, 12/26/02, p.A1)

1571        May 20, Venice, Spain & Pope Pius formed an anti-Turkish Saint League.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1571        Aug 8, John Ward, English composer, was born in Canterbury.
    (MC, 8/8/02)(Internet)

1571        Sep 1, Famagusta, Cyprus, surrendered to Mustafa Pasha commander of the Turkish forces after nearly a one year siege. The terms of surrender appeared agreeable to Venetian Gov. Marcantonio Bragadino (b.1523), but Mustafa Pasha turned on Bragadino and had him violently tortured and finally flayed alive. 

1571        Oct 7, Spanish, Genoese and Venetian ships of the Christian League defeated an Ottoman fleet in the naval Battle of Lepanto, Greece. In the last great clash of galleys, the Ottoman navy lost 117 ships to a Christian naval coalition under the overall command of Spain's Don Juan de Austria.
    (AP, 10/7/07)(www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/1760264/posts)

1571        Dec 27, Johannes Kepler (d.1630), German astronomer known as the "father of modern astronomy," was born. Working with the data gathered by Tycho Brahe, he established the three laws of planetary motion:
    a) The planets do not travel in concentric circles, but in ellipses, with the sun at one of the two foci of the ellipse.
    b) A radius vector joining a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.
    c) The third law asserted a mathematical relation between the periods of revolution of the planets and their distance from the sun.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.199)(HN, 12/27/98)

1571        Alessandro Vittoria created his bust of "Tomaso Rangone."
    (WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)

1571        Mughal emperor Akbar moved his court from Agra (India), to Fatehpur Sikri, where he built a sandstone palace in the middle of nowhere.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.82)

1571        In Malta the Palace of the Grand Masters was begun.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)

1571        Along with the Common Book of Prayer, the Thirty-nine Articles constitute the doctrinal statements of the Church of England. Developed from the Forty-two Articles written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer in 1553 "for the avoiding of controversy in opinions." When Mary became queen in 1553 and restored Catholicism, the Forty-two Articles were eliminated. Upon the reign of Elizabeth I in 1558 a new statement of doctrine was needed. The 1563 Canterbury Convocation drastically revised the Forty-two Articles and a final revision resulted in the Thirty-nine articles in 1571, approved by the Queen and imposed on the clergy. They deal briefly with the doctrines accepted by Catholics and Protestants alike and more fully with the points of controversy.
    (HNQ, 10/20/98)

1571        Charles IX of France had a reconciliation with the Huguenots.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571        John Lyon founded Harrow School in England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571        Hugh Price founded Jesus College at Oxford.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571        Pope Pius V signed an alliance with Venice and Spain to fight the Turks.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571        A British law was so set that a man could be fined for not wearing a wool cap.
    (NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)

1571        A permanent gallows in London drew gawkers and became a source of entertainment and profit.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1571        Potters from Antwerp introduced Delft ware to England about this time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571        The Jesuits in Chesapeake Bay were wiped out by the Indians, resulting in the complete withdrawal of all Jesuits from Florida.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571        Moscow was sacked by Tartars from Crimea.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1571        Siam’s Naresuan the Great (8) was taken hostage by Burmese invaders. It was the custom of the time for the victorious nation in a battle to take a royal child of the defeated monarch home as insurance against further aggression.

1571        Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) was wounded in the Battle of Lepanto, which pitted Ottoman Turkish forces against the Holy League, led by Spain. Returning home aboard the ship La Marquesa he was hit with three musket shots by Turkish pirates and spent years captive in Algiers. The Trinitarian order negotiated his release and helped pay a ransom that ruined the Cervantes family. In 1604 he published the first part of "The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha."
    (AP, 4/28/14)

1571        Turks sacked the St. Sophia Cathedral in Old Nicosia, Cyprus, and turned it into the Selimiye Mosque.
    (CNT, 3/04, p.153)

1571-1610     Michelangelo Merisi de Caravaggio, Italian painter. He painted the "Beheading of St. John" that was kept in Malta and recently sent to Florence for restoration. Paintings from the school of Caravaggio include "The Chastisement of Love." In 1996 the oil painting "A Boy Peeling an Apple" was rediscovered. [see 1571, 1573]
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.E2)(AAP, 1964)(SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.82)

1572        Feb 14, Hans Christoph Haiden, composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1572        Apr 1, The Sea Beggars under Guillaume de la Marck landed in Holland and captured the small town of Briel.
    (HN, 4/1/99)

1572        May 1, Pius V (Antonio Ghislieri), grand inquisitor, Pope (1566-72), died. He was succeeded by Gregory XIII.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(MC, 5/1/02)

1572        Jun 9, Willem van Orange's army occupied Gelderland.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1572        Jun 11, Ben Jonson (d.1637), English playwright and poet, was born. "Very few men are wise by their own counsel; or learned by their own teaching. For he that was only taught by himself, had a fool to his master."
    (AP, 1/4/98)(HN, 6/11/01)

1572        Jun 24, Adrianus van Gouda (lay brother), was hanged along with Cornelis van Diedt, Daniell van Arendonck (clergyman), Joannes van Naarden (priest) and Ludovicus Voets (priest).
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1572        Jul 9, In Gorinchem, Netherlands, 19 Catholics were executed during the Dutch war for independence. They became known as “The Martyrs of Gorkum."
    (SFC, 3/5/11, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martyrs_of_Gorkum)

1572        Jul 18, William of Orange was recognized as viceroy of Holland, Friesland and Utrecht.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1572        Aug 24, The slaughter of French Protestants at the hands of Catholics began in Paris as Charles IX of France attempted to rid the country of Huguenots. Charles, under the sway of his mother Catherine de Medici, believed the Huguenot Protestants were plotting a revolution. France’s fourth war of religion started with the Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day, in which 50,000 Huguenots and their leader, Admiral Gaspard de Chastillon, Count the Coligny, were killed in and around Paris. Meyerbeer's 1836 opera "Les Huguenots" was centered on the struggle. The House of Guise played a leading role in the massacre. In 2009 Stuart Carroll authored “Martyrs and Murderers: The Guise Family and the Making of Europe."
    (AP, 8/24/97)(HN, 8/24/98)(WSJ, 11/23/99, p.A21)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.78)

1572        Sep 30, Francisco Borgia, Jesuit theologian and saint, died at 61.
    (MC, 9/30/01)

1572        Oct 5, The Spanish army under Duke of Alva's son Don Frederik plundered Mechelen (Flanders).
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1572        Nov 11, A supernova was observed in constellation known as Cassiopeia. Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, discovered a nova in the constellation of Cassiopeia. It is described in detail in his book "De Nova Stella" (1573). The light eventually became as bright as Venus and could be seen for two weeks in broad daylight. After 16 months, it disappeared.
    (www.seds.org/~spider/spider/Vars/sn1572.html)(V.D.-H.K.p.197) (AP, 12/4/08)(Econ, 1/14/17, p.73)

1572        Nov 23, Agnolo di Cosimo (b.1503), Italian Renaissance painter and poet (aka Bronzino), died. He had worked as the court artist to Cosimo de’ Medici, Duke of Florence. His work included a portrait of "Eleonora of Toledo and her son."
    (MT, Spring 02, p.23)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronzino)

1572        Nov 24, John Knox (67), Scottish preacher, died.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1572        Dec 30, Galeazzo Alessi (60), Italian architect (Palazza Marino, Milan), died.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1572        Dec, The Dutch town of Naarden surrendered to Imperial Spanish troops under the Duke of Alba (1507-1582). The town was then burned and the entire population massacred. Alba’s attempt to impose a 10% sales tax on commodities stirred resistance that led to the Dutch independence. In 2004 Henry Kamen authored "The Duke of Alba."
    (WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1572        Luis Vaz de Camoes, Portuguese poet, published his epic poem about Vasco da Gama’s voyages: "Os Lusiadas."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1572        The first book privately printed in England, "De Antiquitate Britannicae Ecclesiae" by Matthew Parker, was published.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1572        The Privy Council of Queen Elizabeth I, refused to grant patent protection  to new knives with bone handles because the improvement was marginal.
    (Econ, 5/5/07, p.78)

1572        One of the earliest cellos was made by Andrea Amati in Cremona.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1572        The Society of Antiquaries was founded in London.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1572        The British Parliament passed the Act for Punishment as Vagabonds. It required entertainers to obtain a noble patron for support. It led to the emergence of permanent theaters.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1572        A refurbished Turkish fleet captured Cyprus.   
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1572        Michel de Montaigne, French philosopher, observed that “there are men on whom the mere sight of medicine is operative."
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.92)
1572        Ambroise Pare, French surgeon, introduced more humane treatment for battlefield wounds. He substituted egg yolk and turpentine for boiling oil, and introduced arterial ligature instead of cauterization.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1572        Dutch warships, Beggars of the Sea, effectively harried Spanish shipping in the English Channel and fueled the Dutch War of Independence.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1572        The Dutch used carrier pigeons during the Spanish siege of Haarlem.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1572        On the death of Sigismund II, the Polish monarchy became elective.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1572        Fray Luis de Leon, Spanish scholar and poet at Salamanca, was denounced as a heretic and served 5 years in prison.
    (SSFC, 6/8/03, p.C8)

1573        Jan 28, In Warsaw a confederation act acknowledged freedom of religion in Lithuania and Poland.
    (LHC, 1/28/03)

1573        Jan 31, Giulio Cesare Monteverdi, composer, was born.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1573        Feb 11, Sir Francis Drake 1st saw the Pacific Ocean from Panama.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1573        Feb 28, Elias Hill, German architect, city builder (Augsburg), was born.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1573        Mar 14, Claude II of Lotharingen, duke of Aumale, died. He murdered Huguenot leader Adm. Coligny. (see Aug 24, 1572]
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1573        Apr 26, Marie de'Medici, Queen of France, was born.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1573        May 11, Henry of Anjou became the first elected king of Poland.
    (HN, 5/11/98)

1573        Jul 15, Inigo Jones (d.1652), father of English classical architecture, was born in London.  He restored St. Paul's Cathedral.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(MC, 7/15/02)

1573        Jul 20, Lancelot of Brederode (Netherlands), water beggar, was beheaded.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1573        Aug 7, Francis Drake’s fleet returned to Plymouth.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1573        Sep 28, Caravaggio (d.1610), painter, was born in Italy. His emphasis on the play of light and shadow invoked greater realism and set a new trend in painting. His paintings included "Boy Bitten by Lizard." In 1999 Helen Langdon published "Caravaggio, A Life." [see 1565-1609 & 1571-1610]
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8,13)(SFEC, 7/11/99, BR p.6)(MC, 9/28/01)

1573        Oct 7, William Laud, English archbishop of Canterbury (1633-45), was born.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1573        Nov 7, Solomon Luria (Maharshal), talmudic author (Yam Shel Shelomo), died.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1573        Argentina’s city of Cordoba was founded and shaped by the Jesuits as a cultural center.
    (SSFC, 1/29/17, p.F6)

1573        Don John of Austria captured Tunis from the Turks.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573        Sir Francis Drake captured a huge shipment of Spanish silver as it was being transported across the Isthmus of Panama.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573        The city of Potosi, Bolivia, at the foot of Cerro Rico grew to surpass Seville, Madrid, Rome or Paris. During colonial rule, an estimated 30,000 Africans worked as slaves in Potosi.
    (NH, 11/96, p.38)(http://tinyurl.com/pptepb9)

1573        The first maps in England were made by Christopher Saxton. He produced an atlas with 37 county maps and a large country map.
    (SFC, 8/14/96, z-1 p.5)
1573        Sir Francis Walsingham began serving as principal secretary for Queen Elizabeth I. He founded a vast espionage network to protect the queen and served her until 1590. In 2005 Stephen Budiansky authored “Her Majesty’s Spymaster," and account of Walsingham’s efforts.
    (WSJ, 8/17/05, p.D14)

1573        Wan-Li of China began a 47-reign as emperor of the Ming dynasty.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573        Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, published a monograph on his discovery of a new star. His observations were denied by Roman Catholic divines, but Tycho was Lutheran, independently rich, and lived in a Lutheran country whose king was a staunch Protestant, so he didn’t care. Tycho settled down to "leave to posterity a collection of astronomical observations sufficiently accurate so that future generations would be able to depend on them. "

1573        France’s Fourth War of Religion ended with the Pacification of Boulogne.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1573        The Huguenots gained an amnesty and were promised freedom of conscience.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573        The first German cane-sugar refinery was established at Augsburg.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573        Paolo Cagliari Veronese (1528-1588), Venetian painter, was hauled before the Inquisition and accused of painting profanities.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1588)(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1573        Venice and Turkey signed the Peace of Constantinople whereby Venice surrendered Cyprus and paid Turkey a large indemnity.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573        Japan’s Ashikaga shogunate ended after 237 years with Shogun Yoshiake routed in his challenge of ruler Nobunaga Oda.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1573         The Portuguese crown began administering Principe.
    (AP, 7/18/03)

1573-1577    In Malta the Cathedral of St. John was built.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.40)

1573-1615    The Momoyama period of Japan. It coincided with the ascendancy of 3 warlords and represented a time of temporary peace with the opening of the country to Western influence.
    (WSJ, 9/25/96, p.A20)

1573-1812    The Spanish-imposed "mita" system in Bolivia and Peru forced a seventh of adult men from indigenous communities to work in silver and mercury mines.
    (Econ., 5/2/20, p.60)

1574        Feb 23, The 5th War of Religion, against the Huguenots, broke out in France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(HN, 2/23/98)(MC, 2/23/02)

1574        Feb 28, On the orders of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, two Englishmen and an Irishman were burnt for heresy.
    (HN, 2/28/99)

1574        Mar 5, William Oughtred, mathematician and inventor of the slide rule, was born.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1574        Mar 7, John Wilbye, composer, was born.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1574        Apr 21, Cosimo d' Medici (~54), Italian duke of Toscane, died.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1574        Oct 1-2 A storm broke a Leiden dike and 20,000 Spanish soldiers drowned. Spanish forces in the Netherlands besieged Leyden, but William the Silent (Willem of Orange) breached the dykes to flood the land. This allowed his ships to sail up to the walls and lift the siege.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(PCh, 1992, p.198)(MC, 10/1/01)

1574        Oct 21, Nicolo Rubini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1574        Dec 15, Ottoman Sultan Selim II (b.1524), a son of Suleiman the Magnificent, died in a drunken stupor after smashing his head on his Turkish bath. He had reigned since 1566. He was succeeded by his son, Murad III in the Ottoman House of Osman. Murat III expanded the palace at Topkapi and built the famous harem there.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selim_II)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R37)(Ot, 1993, xvii)(Econ, 12/19/15, p.69)

1574        Justus Lipsius, Flemish scholar, edited "The Histories and The Annals of Tacitus."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574        Giorgio Vasari, completed Florence’s Uffizi Palace after 14 years of building.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574        In India the 4th Sikh guru founded the city of Amritsar.
    (WSJ, 10/12/01, p.W17)

1574        The Univ. of Berlin was founded.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574        An auto-da-fe (a public announcement of sentence imposed on persons tried by the Inquisition) took place in Mexico for the first time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574        Spanish forces in the Netherlands besieged Leyden, but William the Silent breached the dykes to flood the land. This allowed his ships to sail up to the walls and lift the siege.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574        Turkish troops captured Tunis from the Spaniards.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574        The Portuguese began to settle in Angola.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
1574        Juan Fernandez, Spanish navigator, discovered a group of islands, to be named after him, 400 miles off the west coast of South America.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574        In France Charles IX died and was succeeded by his brother Henry of Valois, Henry III.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

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