The Fifteenth Century 1400-1449
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1400 Feb 14,
Richard II (33), deposed king of England (1377-99), was murdered in
Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire.
(HN, 2/14/99)(MC, 2/14/02)
1400 Oct 25, Geoffrey Chaucer,
author (Canterbury Tales), died in London.
(AP, 10/25/97)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)
c1400 “The Edifying Book of
Erotic Chess,” in effect a manual of seduction, was published.
(Econ, 7/10/04, p.76)
c1400 The first gold balls were
made of stitched leather which was soaked and filled with feathers.
(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.A12)
c1400 The Ahwahneechee, a
Southern Sierra Miwok band, first began to inhabit Yosemite in
(SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.4)
c1400 In Washington state the 6
yard deep Electron Mudflow came down from Mount Rainier where the
town of Orting was later established.
(SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A22)
1400 From about this time Dubai
became a major crossing point on int’l. trading routes in silk,
pearls, spices and gold.
(WSJ, 6/20/06, p.C12)
1400 Plague broke out again in
c1400 Johann Gutenberg
(Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg d.1468), was born in
Mainz. He was the inventor of movable, metal type, a stamping mold
for casting type, the alloy of lead, tin, and antimony for the cast
letters, the printing press itself, and a printing ink with an oil
base. The first books were printed around 1450 on rag paper.
(V.D.-H.K.p.153-154)(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)(WSJ,
1400 By the 14th century the
population Ghent (Belgium) was about 65,000. North of the Alps only
Paris was larger.
(SSFC, 12/11/16, p.G8)
1400 The Malaysian city of
Malacca was founded and it was soon used by Zheng He, a Chinese
Muslim from the Ming court, as a base for his treasure ships.
(Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.5)
1400 Mali (Africa) was under
attack from all four sides and gradually weakened in power.
1400 In Cracow, Poland, the
Jagiellonian University was re-founded with funds and a permanent
income by the royal couple. [see 1364]
(WSJ, 7/13/00, p.A24)(PG-Comm)
c1400 The Toraja people came to
Sulawesi (later part of Indonesia) by boat from a island to the
southwest and settled on the banks of the Sa’dan River.
(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.T8)
c1400 In Wales Owain Glyndwr
(Owen Glendower c1359-c1460) led the warriors of Gwynned in a bloody
revolt against Henry IV. The event was marked by a comet.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)
c1400 Stone buildings were
erected at Zimbabwe in central Africa and continued to be enlarged
until about 1830.
(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.169)
1400s Kongo’s king, the
Mani-Kongo, ruled six provinces and about two million people. The
capital of the Kongo was Mbanza, built on a fertile plateau 100
miles east of the coast and 50 miles south of the Congo River in
c1400-1425 Yong Le, the 3rd Ming emperor, created
a permanent imperial residence in Beijing. Work was done by some
200,000 laborers and in time became the 8,886-room complex called
the "Forbidden City."
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R36)
1400-1464 Roger Van Der Weyden, Flemish painter.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1624)
c1400-1471 Sir Thomas Malory, English author. His
work included "Le Morte Darthur."
(WUD, 1994, p.868)
c1400-1474 Guillaume Dufay [Du Fay], Flemish
composer. His work included the "Ecclesie militantis," which has
four texts going simultaneously.
(WUD, 1994, p.440)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)
1400-1500 The 15th cent Urbino Bible was produced.
(WSJ, 7/12/96, p.A9)
1400-1500 In China a Shang Xi 15th cent. painting
portrayed "The Xuande Emperor on an Outing."
(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)
1400-1500 Europeans began producing ethereal
sounds from wine glasses containing liquids.
(SFEC,12/28/97, DB p.17)
1400-1500 In 2005 Tim Parks authored “Medici
Money: Banking, Metaphysics, and Art in Fifteenth Century Florence.”
(Econ, 4/23/05, p.81)
c1400-1500 The 15th century German "Housebook" was
produced. It taught the rules and etiquette of jousting, and
contained remedies, cooking recipes, information on love and
(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T3)
c1400-1500 In Germany Cardinal Nikolaus Cusanus,
philosopher, founded a religious and charitable institution complete
with vineyard at Kues, across from Bernkastel on the Mosel River.
(SFEC, 4/30/00, p.T8)
1400-1500 The Vietnamese from the north pushed the
Chams south and opened the port of Hoi An to foreign traders.
(SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)
1400-1500 Porcelain from this period was recovered
from a sunken ship in the South China Sea in 1999. 10% of the
150,000 pieces were kept by the Vietnamese government and the rest
was scheduled for auction on eBay.
(WSJ, 6/22/00, p.W10)
1400-1500 The city of Bagerhat was founded in
southern Bangladesh by Ulugh Khan-i-Jahan as a Muslim colony.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.B)
1400-1500 In the Philippines Vigan historic town
on Luzon was established by Chinese traders by this time.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.F)
1400-1500 Giovanni Spinetti of Venice built the
first small piano called the spinet.
(SFEC, 4/20/97, Z1 p.5)
1400-1600 Researchers in 1997 announced that
sometime in this period the Sauvignon Franc grape crossed with
Sauvignon Blanc grape to produce the Cabernet Sauvignon grape.
(SFC, 6/4/97, Z1 p.4)
1400-1600 Hoi An, Vietnam, flourished at the end
of the 2nd Cham (Vijaya) Empire of this time. It attracted Japanese,
then Portuguese, Dutch and Chinese merchants.
(AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.H)
1400-1850 This was a frigid period in Europe and
came to be called the Little Ice Age.
(NG, 7/04, p.28)
1401 Jan 9, In Marienburg some
80 Lithuanian barons were baptized to Catholicism.
1401 Jan 18, In Lithuania
Vytautas and the country’s dukes submitted documents to Poland that
Vytautas would rule Lithuania as a vassal to Poland and return the
country to Poland upon his death.
1401 Feb 19, William Sawtree,
1st English religious martyr, was burned in London.
1401 Mar 13, The 1st
Samogitian uprising supported by Vytautas took place against the
1401 Jun, Amir Timur, aka
Tamerlane, invaded Baghdad. After the capture of the city, 20,000 of
its citizens were massacred.
1401 In England King Henry IV
passed the medieval statute De Heretico Comburendo.
1401 In Florence Filippo
Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti entered a competition to create a
set of new bronze doors for the baptistery of the cathedral.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)
1401 A Giro Bank was
established in Barcelona, making it Europe’s first bank. At this
time Barcelona was the capital of the Aragon Kingdom.
(Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)
1401-1428 Tomasso di Giovanni, Italian artist,
also known as Masaccio. His only know documented work is the Pisa
altarpiece of 1426.
(WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)
1402 Mar 2, In Marienburg Svitrigaila
crossed over to the Knights of the Cross and promised to uphold the
Salyn treaty that was broken by Vytautas.
1402 Jul 20, In the Battle of
Angora the Mongols, led by Tamerlane "the Terrible," defeated the
Ottoman Turks and captured Sultan Bayezid I. The Turks eventually
regained control of the city and it remained a part of the Ottoman
Empire for the next five centuries. Around 2,000 BCE the site of the
present day city was a Hittite village known as Ancyra. It was
conquered in 333 BC by Macedonians led by Alexander the Great.
Because of its central Anatolian Plateau location on the Ankara
River, it became an important commercial center. Angora’s name was
changed to Ankara in 1930.
(HN, 7/20/98)(Ot, 1993, p.6)(HNQ, 4/15/02)
1402 Sep 3, Gian Galeazzo
Visconti, duke and tyrant of Milan (1395-1402), died at 51.
1402 The English Bedlam
institution, a former monastery whose named derived from Bethlehem,
began to house the poor and incurably mad. From 1728-1853 it was
presided over by a family of doctors all descended from James Monro.
On 2003 Jonathan Andrews and Andrew Scull published their 2-volume
study: "Undertaker of the Mind" and "Customers and patrons of the
mad-Trade," based on Monro’s Case Book.
(WSJ, 1/29/03, p.D10)
1402 In Scotland the Duke of
Rothesay, son of King Robert III and heir apparent, died under
mysterious circumstances while in the custody of Robert Stewart, the
1st Duke of Albany. Stewart had built Duane Castle at the end of the
(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)
1403 Feb 22, Charles VII, King
of France (1422-1461), was born.
(HN, 2/22/98)(MC, 2/22/02)
1403 Jul 21, Henry IV defeated
the Percys in the Battle of Shrewsbury in England. Henry IV fought
down an insurrection from Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland
and Ralph Neville, the Earl of Westmorland, the same men who had
helped him overthrow Richard II. Henry Percy (39), [Harry Hotspur]
was killed in the battle.
(WUD, 1994, p.1671)(MWH, 1994)(HN, 7/21/98)
1403 Gjergj Kastrioti (d.1468)
was born. He became the Albanian leader known as Skanderbeg.
(www, Albania, 1998)(HNQ, 10/5/98)
1403-1413 The Ottoman Empire fell into 11 years of
civil war between the 4 sons of Beyazid.
1403?-1482 Giovanni di Paolo, painter. He painted
"Expulsion from Paradise."
1404 Feb 9, Constantine XI
Dragases, last Byzantine Emperor, was born.
1404 Feb 18, Leon Battista
Alberti (d.1472), Italian humanist, architect (Della Pittura), was
born in Genoa, the illegitimate son of a Florentine merchant.
(WSJ, 11/30/00, p.A20)(MC, 2/18/02)
1404 Sep 27, William of
Wykeham, chancellor and Bishop of Winchester, died.
1404 In Wales Owain Glyndwr
convened a parliament in Macchynlleth.
(SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)
1404-1423 China controlled the price of tea and
was able to increase its stock of horses from 20,000 to 1,600,000.
(WSJ, 8/15/00, p.A24)
1405 Feb 14, Timur, aka
Tamerlane (b.1336), crippled Mongol monarch, died in Kazakhstan. In
2004 Justin Marozzi authored “Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror
of the World.”
1405 Andrei Rublev, Russian
icon painter, painted the iconostasis of the Cathedral of the Gospel
with Theophan the Greek; this was the 1st work executed in the
classical Russian style, distinguished from the Byzantine by its
great height and width and organization of multiple, varied icons
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)
1405 Admiral Zheng He, a Muslim
eunuch, led a Ming dynasty fleet with 28,000 men through Southeast
Asia to India and on to Africa and the Middle East.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(WSJ, 11/18/06, p.P11)
1406 Apr 4, Robert III, King of
Scotland (1390-1406), died.
1406 Nov 30, Pope Gregory XII,
born Angelo Correr or Corraro, succeeded Pope Innocent VII.
1406 In Beijing the Palace of
Heavenly Purity, later renamed the People’s Cultural Palace, was
1406 The Signoria of Florence
decreed that the city’s 12 guilds had 10 years to fulfill their
obligations to decorate an exterior niche of the Orsanmichele guild
(WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)
1407 Oct 26, Mobs attacked the
Jewish community of Cracow.
1408 Feb 14, Vytautas gave
self-rule status to Kaunas, which was 1st mentioned in the summer of
1408 Feb 19, Henry IV led a
victory in the Battle of Brabham Moor that marked the end of
domestic threats. The revolt of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland,
against King Henry IV, ended with his defeat and death at Bramham
(MWH, 1994)(HN, 2/19/98)
1408 Sep 22, Johannes VII
Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1376-77, 90/1404-8), died.
1408 A law was enacted making
it illegal to translate any part of the scriptures into English. It
was declared a capital offense to possess an English Bible.
(WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)
1408 A marriage at the Hvalsey
Church in the East Settlement was the last record of the Norse in
(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)(AM, 7/00, p.66)
1409 Jan 9, Rene' d'Anjou
(d.1480) was born the son and 3rd child of Duke Louis II of Anjou
and Yolande of Aragon at Angers in the Maine-and-Loire region of
western France. King René, poet and wine lover, demonstrated how all
our leaders ought to be.
1410 May 18, Ruprecht, Roman
Catholics German king, died.
1410 Jul 15, Lithuanian-Polish
forces defeated the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Tannenberg,
Prussia, thereby halting the Knights’ eastward expansion along the
Baltic and hastening their decline. Vytautas and Jogaila with hired
mercenaries from Belarus along with Tartars and Czechs defeated the
Teutonic Knights between Grunvald (Zalgiriai) and Tannenberg
southeast of Malburg. Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and many of
his nobles were killed. The war officially ended with the Treaty of
Thorn in which the Knights gave up Zemaitija to Vytautas.
(COE)(H of L, 1931, p.52)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)
1410 Andrei Rublev, Russian
icon painter, painted the icon “The Old Testament Trinity,” which
showed Abraham’s 3 angels. This is the only work known to be
entirely his own.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)
c1410 The French "Book of the
Chase" depicted hunting dogs and snares.
(SFEM, 4/6/97, p.16)
1411 Feb 1, Lithuania, Poland
and the Knights of the Cross signed the Torun Peace Treaty.
Samogitia was returned to Lithuania. The Teutonic Knights had
regrouped and gone to battle against Vytautas and Jogaila. Peace was
signed at Torun and western Lithuania was returned, but not Klaipeda
(Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 71)(LHC, 1/31/03)
1411-1437 Sigismund became the Holy Roman Emperor.
(WUD, 1994, p.1325)
1412 Jan 6, According to
tradition, French heroine Joan of Arc was born Jeanette d'Arc, in
the French village of Domrémy. When she was 12 years old, she began
hearing what she believed were voices of saints, sending her
messages from God. When she was 17, the voices told her to leave her
village and save Orléans. Joan convinced the dauphin that she could
lead French troops in resistance against their English invaders, and
she was given a force of several hundred men to command, whom she
led to victory at Orléans in 1429. Wearing her white enameled armor
suit, she continued to fight against the English. Joan was captured
by Burgundians and then burned at the stake by the English on May
30, 1431, for the offenses of witchcraft, heresy and wearing male
clothing. The Roman Catholic Church recognized Joan of Arc as a
saint in 1920.
(CFA, '96,Vol 179, p.38)(AP, 1/6/98)(HNPD,
1413 Mar 20, Henry IV (b.1367),
King of England (1399-1413), died in the house of the Abbot of
Westminster. He was succeeded by Henry V (b.1387).
1413 Iceland used dried fish
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1414 Feb 19, Thomas Arundel,
archbishop of Canterbury, chancellor of England, died.
1414 Nov 16, A council of
bishops opened in Constance Germany under Emp. Sigismund. When the
council of Constance opened, Christians owed obedience to three
different popes: Gregory XII of the Roman party, Benedict XIII of
the Avignon party, and John XXIII, who had been elected after the
death of Alexander V. John XXIII and Benedict XIII were deposed by
the council, and Gregory XII voluntarily resigned. Then Martin V was
elected pope on 11 November 1417 and he was regarded as the
legitimate pontiff by the church as a whole.
1415 Jun 13, Henry the
Navigator, the prince of Portugal, embarked on an expedition to
Africa. This marked the beginning of Portuguese dominance of West
1415 Jul 4, Pope Gregory XII
(1326-1417), born Angelo Correr or Corraro, stepped down in a deal
to end the Great Western Schism among competing papal claimants.
1415 Jul 6, Jan Huss, Bohemian
(Czech) religious reformer, was burned as a heretic at the stake at
Constance, Germany. He had spoken out against Church corruption.
(NH, 9/96, p.23)(HN, 7/6/98)
1415 Aug 13, King Henry V of
England took his army across the English Channel and laid siege on
(ON, 6/08, p.9)
1415 Sep 21, Frederick III,
German Emperor (1440-1493), was born in Innsbruck Austria.
1415 Oct 25, An English army
under Henry V defeated the French at Agincourt, France. The French
had out numbered Henry’s troops, but Welsh longbows turned the tide
of the battle. The French force was under the command of the
constable Charles I d’Albret. Charles I d’Albret, son of
Arnaud-Amanieu d’Albret, came from a line of nobles who were often
celebrated warriors. His ancestors had fought in the First Crusade
(1096-99) and his father had fought in the Hundred Years War
himself--first for the English before joining the side of France.
Charles’ own exploits in the ongoing conflict came to an end at the
Battle of Agincourt. The decisive victory for the outnumbered
English saw the death of not only Charles, but a dozen other
high-ranking nobles as well. But Charles’ fate did not end the
Albrets as his descendants went on to become kings of Navarre, and
later, France. In 2005 Juliet Barker authored “Agincourt: The King,
the Campaign, and the Battle.”
(MH, 12/96)(HN, 10/25/98)(Econ, 10/22/05,
p.88)(ON, 6/08, p.10)
1415 Oct 25, Edward (b.1373),
duke of York, died at the Battle of Agincourt.
1416 Feb 6, A Samogitian
complaint against the Knights of the Cross was read at the Catholic
Church Council at Constance.
1416 Apr 2, Ferdinand I (52)
the Justified, king of Aragon and Sicily, died.
1416 May 7, Monk Nicolaas
Serrurier was arrested for heresy at Tournay.
1416 May 30, Jerome of Prague
was burned as a heretic by the Church.
1416 Jun 15, St. Francesco de
Paolo, was born.
1416 Jun 15, Joannes
Argyropoulos, Greek scholar, was born.
1416 Nanni di Banco, guild
member of the Masters of Stone and Wood, installed his “Four Crowned
Martyr Saints” at the Orsanmichele guild center in Florence.
(WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)
1416 The Drepung Loseling
Monastery was founded in Lhasa, Tibet, as a center for Buddhist
teaching. It was the home for early Dalai Lamas and a place where
multiphonic singing was nurtured.
(SFC, 10/10/96, p.E1)
1416-1469 Piero de Medici, son of Cosimo de
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1417 Feb 23, Pietro Barbo,
later Pope Paul II (1464-1471), was born in Venice.
(PTA, 1980, p.418)
1417 Nov 11, Martin V was
elected pope and was regarded as the legitimate pontiff by the
church as a whole.
1417 Donatello used central
point perspective in his scene of St. George fighting the dragon.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)
1417 Bibliophile Poggio
Bracciolini stumbled on a work by Roman poet Lucretius in a
monastery in southern Germany. Lucretius (~99BC-~55BC) had authored
“On the Nature of Things” (De Rerum Natura), which laid out in 7,400
lines of Latin verse the radical philosophy of the Greek philosopher
Epicurus (341BC-270BC). The work had disappeared in the Middle Ages
and lay largely forgotten until Bracciolini found it. In 2011
Stephen Greenblatt authored “The Swerve: How the World Became
1418 Feb 25, At the Constance church synod
the Orthodox Metropolitan of Kiev and Lithuania, Gregory Camblak,
proposed a union between the Orthodox and Catholic church.
1418 In China a book was
published about this time titled “The Marvelous Visions of the Star
Raft.” It documented some of the exploits of Admiral Zheng He, who
roamed the oceans from 1405-1435.
(Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)
1418 In 2006 Liu Gang, a
Beijing lawyer and amateur map collector, unveiled a map that
proclaimed to be a 1763 copy of an older Chinese map dating to 1418.
The map showed the world in 2 hemispheres, but its authenticity was
(SSFC, 1/22/06, p.A9)(Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)
1418 In Florence Brunelleschi
and Ghiberti submitted plans for the dome of the Cathedral of St.
Mary of the Flower. The cathedral had been under construction for
125 years and was designed to be capped by the largest dome since
the golden age of ancient Rome.
(ON, 9/00, p.6)
1418 The Gawhar Shad Mosque in
Meshed, Iran was completed by the wife of Shah Rukh.
(NG, Sept 1939, Baroness Ravensdale, p.353)
1418 The Church Council at
Constance, Germany, begun in 1414, ended.
(WUD, 1994 p.313)
1418 In Spain an agreement with
the city council of Madrid set a fee of 50 maravedis - medieval
copper coins - per 1,000 sheep brought through the central Sol
square and Gran Via street. In 1994 sheep farmers began parading
their livestock through the city, along a route that once cut
through undeveloped countryside on their way to winter grazing
pastures in southern Spain.
1419 Jul 30, Anti-Catholic
Hussites, followers of executed reformer Jan Hus, stormed the town
hall in Prague and threw 3 Catholic consuls and 7 citizens out
the window. This episode has been called "The Defenestration in
Prague." The out-the-window gentlemen all landed safely in a manure
(NH, 9/96, p.23)(MC, 7/30/02)
1419 Aug 16, Wenceslas
(b.1361), son of Charles IV and King of Germany, died. He served as
King Wenceslas IV of Bohemia (1363) and King of the Romans (1376).
1419 Aug 16, Sigismund, Holy
Roman Emperor, became king of Bohemia following the death of
Wenceslaus IV, but was ejected by the Hussites due to the execution
of Jan Huss.
1419 Sep 10, John the Fearless
(48), Burgundy and French warrior, was murdered at Montereau,
France, by supporters of the dauphine.
(HN, 9/10/98)(MC, 9/10/01)
1419 Dec 11, Heretic Nicolaas
Serrurier was exiled from Florence.
1419 The marble Fonte Gaia in
Siena was sculpted by Jacopo della Quercia.
(WSJ, 4/29/03, D5)
1419 An English army under
Henry V captured the duchy of Normandy.
(ON, 6/08, p.11)
1419 Prince Henry (d.1460), as
governor of Portugal’s southernmost province, attracted
shipbuilders, cartographers and other nautical experts. His
patronage was instrumental in stimulating European exploration in
the first half of the 15th century.
1420 Mar 1, Pope Martinus I
called for a crusade against the Hussieten (Bohemia).
1420 May 21, King Charles VI of
France signed the Treaty of Troyes. It recognized all the
territorial gains of King Henry V, gave Henry the daughter of
Charles, Catherine of Valois, in marriage, and acknowledged Henry as
the legitimate heir to the French throne.
(ON, 6/08, p.11)
1420 Jul 14, Jan Zizka
(1360?-1424) led the Taborites in Battle at Vitkov Zizka's hill
(Prague). The Taborites beat forces under Sigismund, the
pro-Catholic King of Hungary and Bohemia. This was part of the
Hussite Wars (1419-1436).
1420 Jul, The Hussites agreed
on the Four Articles of Prague, which were promulgated in the Latin,
Czech, and German languages. In summery they stated: 1) Freedom to
preach the Word of God. 2) Celebration of the Lord's Supper in both
kinds (bread and wine to priests and laity alike). 3) No profane
power for the clergy. And 4) The same law for laity and priests.
1420 Dec 1, Henry V, King of
England and de facto ruler of France, entered Paris.
1420 Siennese artist Giovanni
di Paolo painted a tiny gold-ground triptych.
(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)
1420 The main character of
Janacek’s opera "The Excursions of Mr. Broucek" was cast into a
setting of religious wars from this time and forced to fight with
the Hussite fanatics in Prague.
(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)
c1420 Francesco di Antonio,
Florentine artist, painted "St. John the Baptist" and "St. Anthony
Abbot." The panels later made their way to St. Philip’s in the Hills
parish in Tucson, Ariz.
(WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A8)
1420 Brewers in Bavaria about
this time discovered a way to brew beer in the winter beginning the
(Econ, 8/27/11, p.71)
1420 In Greece the Bayezid
Mosque was completed in the town of Didymoticho close to the
Greek-Turkish border. In 2017 a fire ripped through the Ottoman
mosque causing extensive damage.
1420 Prince Henry the Navigator
(b.1394) gathered cartographers, navigators and shipbuilders in a
fortress in Sagres, Portugal, to invent navigation technology to
reach India, China and the Americas. He later sailed south of
the Canary Islands to the great eastward curve of West Africa at
Sierra Leone. The search for Prester John as an ally against the
Muslims helped inspire his explorations. Henry began dispatching
expeditions from the nearby port of Lagos. Although dubbed "Henry
the Navigator" by English writers, he never embarked on the voyages
of exploration he himself sponsored. Nevertheless, the prince helped
advance European cartography and the accuracy of navigation tools as
well as spurring maritime commerce.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HN, 3/4/98)(WSJ, 1/28/00,
1420 Portuguese sailors and
soldiers begin fighting the natives of the Canary Islands, 800 miles
southwest of the southern tip of Portugal.
1420 Scotland's Duke of Albany
died. The governorship of Scotland and Doune Castle passed to his
(SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)
1420-1433 Time of the Hussite wars in Bohemia.
(WUD, 1994, p.1671)
1420-1480 The Portuguese explored the west coast
of Africa along the Gold Coast, so named because here could be found
plenty of gold to buy pepper.
1420-1492 Piero della Francesca, painter, born in
Borgo Sansepolcro, but trained in Florence. In Urbino under the
patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, he produced some of his best
works including the "Flagellation," the "Resurrection" and "St.
Apollonia." His paintings incorporated the new aspect of perspective
and earthly matters dominate over religious feeling.
(V.D.-H.K.p.130)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.563)
1420-1500 The Paston Letters comprise 1,000
documents involving an English family over this period. The
collection is held by the Univ. of Michigan and is being made
electronically available under the Humanities Text Initiative (HTI)
program that was begun in 1989.
(MT, 6/96, p.8,9)
1421 Mar, Admiral Zheng He of
the Ming dynasty embarked on a voyage that took him to the east
coast of Africa. In 2002 an amateur historian proposed that he
continued his voyage around the world. [see 1431]
(SSFC, 3/17/02, p.A3)
1421 May 11, Jews were expelled
from Styria, Austria.
1421 May 23, Jews of Austria
were imprisoned and expelled.
1421 May 26, Mohammed I,
Ottoman sultan (1413-21), died.
1421 Nov 18-1421 Nov 19, In the
St. Elizabeth flood the Southern sea flooded 72 villages
killing some 10,000 in Netherlands.
1421 Dec 6, Henry VI, the
youngest king of England, was born. He acceded the thrown at 269
days of age.
1421 In Florence the first
recorded patent was granted for a barge with hoisting gear used to
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1421 In Vienna a medieval
synagogue burned with its Jewish occupants. Its remains were found
in 1996 in the Judenplaz during preparation work for the
installation of a new statue for the Holocaust Memorial project.
(WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A18)
1422 Mar 30, Ketsugan, a Zen
teacher, performed exorcisms to free the Aizoji temple.
1422 Aug 13, William Caxton
(d.1491), 1st English printer, was born.
(http://en.thinkexist.com/birthday/August_13/)(WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)
1422 Aug 31, Henry V (b.1387),
King of England (1413-22) and France (1416-19), died.
1422 Sep 6, Sultan Murat II
ended a vain siege of Constantinople.
1422 Oct 21, Charles VI, King
of France (1380-1422), died at 54.
1422-1482 Federico da Montefeltro, a distinguished
warrior and scholar, commissioned 2 intarsia studiolas (1478-1483).
A history of Federico and his studiola is in the 6/6/96 issue of
"The Bulletin," the NY Met museum’s newsletter for members
(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)
1423 Mar 30, Lithuania and
Poland reached an agreement at Kezmark with Emperor Sigismund, who
agreed to recall Sigismund Kaributa from Poland.
1423 May 23, Benedict XIII,
[Pedro the Luna], Spanish Pope (1394-1423), died. He had been
elected by the Avignon cardinals during the Great Western Schism.
(MC, 5/23/02)(PTA, 1980, p.402)
1423 Ghiberti’s sculpture of
St. Matthew was installed at the Orsanmichele guild center in
(WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)
1423 Dick Whittington (b.1354),
four times Lord Mayor of London, a Member of Parliament and a
sheriff of London, died and gave all his money to charity.
1424 Oct 11, Jan Zizka
(b.c1370), Czech army leader (Hussite), died of plague.
1424 Dec 6, Don Alfonso V of
Aragon granted Barcelona the right to exclude Jews.
1424 Masolino sculpted his
(WSJ, 1/20/02, p.D8)
1424 A Portuguese navigation
chart showed a land called Antilia in the vicinity of the West
(SFEC, 5/28/00, Z1 p.2)
1424 James I (1394-1437)
returned from exile and was crowned King of Scotland.
1425 Feb 27, Moscow's Grand Duke
Vasilii died and his brother-in-law, Vytautas, became guardian of
his son, Vasilii, and daughter, Sophia.
1425 Jul 21, Manuel
Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1391-1425), writer, died. He ended
his days after signing a humiliating peace with the Ottoman Turks.
1425 Aug 25, Countess Jacoba of
Bavaria escaped from jail.
1425 Donatello created his
hollow bronze statue of St. Louis of Toulouse.
(Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)
1425 Robert Campin painted the
altarpiece "The Merode Triptych."
(WSJ, 1/14/00, p.W12)
1425 Dame Juliana Berner
described fly fishing in her "Treatyse of Fysshynge Wyth an Angle."
(SFEM, 11/7/99, p.6)
1426 Sep 18, Hubert [Huybrecht]
van Eyck, painter, died.
1426 Hubert van Eyck
(1385-1426) began work on “The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb,” later
known as the Ghent Altarpiece. The 12-panel work was completed in
1432 by his younger brother Jan van Eyck. It was the first major oil
painting in history.
1426 Vietnam provided a
defeated Chinese army with boats and horses to carry home its
(NG, May, 04, p.94)
1427 May 10, Jews were expelled
from Berne, Switzerland.
1427 Gentile De Fabriano
(b.~1378), Italian painter, died about this time. His work included
“The Adoration of the Kings” (1423).
(WSJ, 12/19/08, p.W9A)(
1428 Feb 5, King Alfonso V
ordered Sicily's Jews to convert to Catholicism.
1428 Dec 22, Richard Neville
Warwick, 2nd earl of Salisbury, was born.
1428 Fra Angelico
(c.1387-1455), Italian painter and Dominican friar, created his
“Madonna of Humility.”
(Econ, 12/17/11, p.148)
1428 John Wycliffe (1328-1384),
English theologian and biblical translator, was posthumously
declared a heretic and his body was exhumed for burning.
(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)
1428-1430 Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter,
took part in painting the frescoes of the Andronikov Monastery’s
Church of the Savior.
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)
1429 Jan 9, The conference at
Luck began (Jan 9-29). Vytautas hosted a grand Congress at Luck
ostensibly to unite the region against threats from the Turks to the
south. Emperor Sigismund of Hungary agreed to the formation of the
Kingdom of Lithuania and dispatched a crown from Hungary.
(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)(LHC, 1/9/03)
1429 Jan 10, Order of Golden
Fleece was established in Austria-Hungary & Spain.
1429 Jan 23, At the Congress of
Luck Emp. Sigismund of Luxembourg offered to crown Vytautas as King
1429 Apr 29, Joan of Arc led
French troops to victory over the English at Orleans during the
Hundred Years’ War. Legend has it that King Charles VII of France
had a suit of armor made for Joan at a cost of 100 war horses. In
1996 a suit of armor was found and proposed to be Joan’s armor.
(ATC, p.107)(SFC, 6/19/96, p.A10)(AP,
1429 May 7, English siege of
Orleans was broken by Joan of Arc.
1429 May 8, French troops under
Joan of Arc rescued Orleans.
1429 May 9, Joan of Arc
defeated the besieging English at Orleans.
1429 Jul 16, Joan of Arc led
French army in the Battle of Orleans. [see May 9]
1429 Jul 17, The dauphin, son
of Charles VI, was crowned as king of France.
(PCh, 1992, p.144)(MC, 7/17/02)
1429 Aug 26, Joan of Arc makes
a triumphant entry into Paris.
1429 Nov 6, Coronation of Henry
VI, King of England.
1429 Dec 21, Jacquemart de
Blaharies, Tournay "heretic", was burned to death.
1429 The beginning of coal
mining in the Saarland (Germany) dates to this time.
(Econ, 3/1/08, p.71)
1429 Two monks reportedly went
fishing in Russia’s northern Solovetsky Islands and soon established
a year-round settlement usually referred to as Solovki.
(Econ, 12/18/04, p.83)
1429 The kingdom of Ryukyu was
unified under the court at Shuri (later part of Naha, Okinawa).
(NH, 9/01, p.56)
1430 Jan 29, Andrei Rublev,
Russian icon painter, died and was buried in the Andronikov
Monastery. In 1966 the Russian film “Andrei Rublev” was made by
(DVD, Criterion, 1998)
1430 May 5, Jews were expelled
from Speyer, Germany.
1430 May 23, Joan of Arc was
captured by the Burgundians, who sold her to the English.
(AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)
1430 Jul 14, Joan of Arc, taken
prisoner by the Burgundians in May, was handed over to Pierre
Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais.
1430 Oct 3, Jews were expelled
from Eger, Bohemia.
1430 Oct 27, Vytautas the
Great (b.1350), the ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
(1392–1430) which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and
Ruthenians, died. He had been preparing for coronation but Polish
forces interrupted the arrival of his crown to Trakus. He began to
ride to Vilnius but fell from his horse and was returned to Trakus
where he died at the age of 80. He was also the Prince of Hrodna
(1370–1382) and the Prince of Lutsk (1387–1389), postulated king of
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vytautas)(H of L,
1430-1432 In Lithuania Svitrigaila served as
1430s Jan van Eyck painted 2 works titled "St.
Francis Receiving the Stigmata." For a time he was considered the
inventor of oil painting, but later lost that distinction. He is
still regarded as the inventor of a type of landscape painting with
figures in realistic scale that influenced the entire Northern
school of painting. Only 9 signed and dated works survive. In 2001
painter David Hockney and physicist Charles Falco alleged that Eyck
and other artists of this period began using optical devices to
project pictures and produce detailed tracings.
(WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A21)(SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)
1430 Hans Memling (d.1494),
painter of the Flemish school, was born in Seligenstadt, Germany.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.894)
1430?-1498? Cosimo Tura, Italian painter. He
painted "Renaissance Nobleman."
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1525)
1430-1516 Giovanni Bellini, Venetian painter son
of Jacopo. He painted "Portrait of the Doge Loredano."
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.136)
1431 Jan 1, Rodrigo Borgia
Lanzol (d.1503), member of the Borgia family, was born in Xativa,
Spain. His mother was the sister of Pope Calixtus III. He was
elected Pope Alexander VI in 1492 and amassed a fortune by pocketing
church funds. His reign helped inspire the Protestant reformation.
He fathered numerous children including Lucrezia Borgia. Machiavelli
based "The Prince" on him.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(PTA, 1980, 424)
1431 Feb 21, The interrogation
of Joan of Arc (1412-1431) began France.
(Sm, 2/06, p.38)
1431 Mar 3, Bishop Gabriele
Condulmer (1383-1447) was elected as Pope Eugene IV (1431-1447).
(WUD, 1994 p.491)(PTA, 1980, p.410)(SC, 3/3/02)
1431 May 30, Joan of Arc
(19), condemned as a heretic [as a witch], was burned at the stake
in Rouen, France. A silent movie of her life was made in 1927 by
Carl Theodor Dreyer.
(CFA, '96, p.46)(WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-12)(AP,
1431 Dec 16, Henry VI of
England was crowned King of France.
1431 Andrea Mantegna (d.1506),
Italian painter and engraver, was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.1534)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)(SFEC,
1431 Admiral Cheng Ho of the
Ming dynasty led a fleet of 52 ships with nearly 30,000 men to the
east coast of Africa. Shortly thereafter the Mings halted all
voyages and begin to foster an attitude of antiforeign conservatism.
1431 Thai armies invaded and
plundered the Khmer civilization at Angkor Thom in Cambodia. The
court moved south of the great lake Tonle Sap and later to Phnom
(SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T6)
1431 Cosimo de Medici was
arrested for seeking to elevate himself higher than others. With
bribes he reduced his sentence from execution to banishment. His
absence led to a financial crises in Florence and he was quickly
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
1431-1463? Francois Villon, French poet. The 1938
film "If I Were King" starred Ronald Colman and Basil Rathbone and
was directed by Preston Sturges. It was about the French poet and
revolutionary Francois Villon.
(WUD, 1994, p.1593)(SFEC, 8/2/98, DB p.49)
1431-1476 In Romania Vlad Tepes, aka Vlad the
Impaler, the son of Vlad Dracul (Vlad the Dragon), was a 15th
century gruesome Wallachian nobleman. Dracula means son of the
dragon. He punished disobedient subjects and “unchaste” women by
impaling them on sharpened logs, often dining amid the victims as
they died. The family name changed to Kretzulesco and grew in
stature with members upgraded to princes and princesses.
1432 Jan 15, Afonso V "the
African", king of Portugal (1438-1481), was born.
1432 Zeeland became part of the
Low Countries possession of Phillip the Good (1396-1467) of
1432-1440 In Lithuania Zygimantas Kestutaitis
served as Grand Duke.
1433 Apr 14, Liduina van
Schiedam (53), Dutch mystic (Christ's Bride), saint, died.
1433 May 31, Sigismund was
crowned emperor of Rome.
1434 Mar 1, Jacoba of Bavaria
married Frank van Borselen.
1434 May 30, The Battle of
Lipany virtually ended the Hussite Wars. Prokopius leader of
Taborites, died in battle.
1434 Nov 24, The Thames River
1434 Jan van Eyck painted "the
Arnolfini Marriage." It is now at the London National Gallery.
(Cont, 12/97, p.60)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)
1434 The imperial kiln at
Jungdezhen in south-central China produced 250,000 porcelain pieces.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)
1434 Nomadic Tuaregs seized
Timbuktu, Mali, from invaders.
1434 Gil Eannes,
Portuguese explorer, made the first successful rounding of Cape
Bojador, off Western Sahara, in a lug-rigged boat.
1435 Sep 21, Treaty of Atrecht.
Philippe le Bon of Burgundy and French king Charles II signed a
treaty at Arras. Phillipe broke with the English and recognized
Charles as France’s only king.
(MC, 9/21/01)(PCh, 1992, p.145)
1435 Oct 20, Andrea Della
Robbia, sculptor, nephew of Luca, was born in Florence.
1435 In Sweden the main
building of the Uppsala Cathedral was completed. Spires were added
in the 19th century.
(SSFC, 7/26/15, p.M16)
1436 Jun 6, Regiomontanus
(Johannes Muller), prepared astronomical tables, was born.
1436 The 350-foot high dome of
Santa Maria del Fiore, the cathedral of Florence, by Filippo
Brunelleschi was completed. The cathedral was consecrated by the
Pope following 140 years of construction. In 2000 Ross King authored
"Brunelleschi’s Dome: How a Renaissance Genius Reinvented
(Hem., 10/97, p.130)(SSFC, 12/24/00, BR p.12)
1436 Emperor Sigismund
(1368-1437) was accepted as king of Bohemia.
(WUD, 1994, p.1672)(WUD, 1994, p.1325)
1436 Johannes Gutenburg of
Germany invented the printing press with movable type.
(SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)
1437 Sep 18, Farmers revolted
1437 Dec 9, Sigismund, Holy
Roman Emperor, died. Major Czech factions had accepted Sigismund as
king of Bohemia prior to his death.
1438 Oct 20, Jacopo di Piero
della Quercia (64), Italian sculptor, died.
1438 Jan van Eyck (1385-1440)
painted his "Portrait of Cardinal Niccols Albergati."
(SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)
1438 Filippo Lippi created the
painting "Woman with a Man at a Window."
(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W20)
1438 The Incas established an
imperial state in the Andes (Peru) and Cusco was rebuilt. They went
on to build over 25,000 miles of roads.
(SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)(NG, Feb, 04, p.72)
1438 The shipbuilding firm of
Camuffo was founded in Portogruaro, Italy.
(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)
1439 Jul 16, Kissing was banned
in England in order to stop germs from spreading.
1439 Oct 21, Traversari
Ambrosius (53), Italian humanist and leader, died.
1439 Oct 27, Albrecht II von
Habsburg (42), king of Bohemia, Hungary and Germany, died.
1439-1440 Donatello (1386-1466), Florentine
artist, completed his bronze statue of David about this time. It was
commissioned by Cosimo de Medici.
1439 Byzantium formally
submitted to Rome. [see 330AD]
(WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)
1439-1448 Felix V served as the last antipope. He
was born as Amadeus VIII, duke of Savoye in 1383.
1440 Jan 22, Ivan III (the
Great), grand prince of Russia, czar from 1462-1505, was born. He
(HN, 1/22/99)(MC, 1/22/02)
1440 Feb 22, Ladislaus V
Posthumus, King of Hungary and Bohemia, was born.
1440 Jun 29, Florentine troops
fought the Milanese in the Battle of Anghiari. After the battle of
Anghieri, Andrea del Castagno (1421-1457), a Medici protege, painted
effigies of the hanged rebels.
1440 Oct 26, Gilles de Rais,
French marshal, depraved killer of 140 children, was hanged over
slow fire. A brilliant young French knight, he was believed to have
cracked over the torture and death of his true love, Jeanne d'Arc,
the Maid of Orleans (d.1431).
1440 Dec 22, Bluebeard, pirate,
c1440 The Book of Hours of Catherine of Cleves was
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D1)
c1440 Lief Eriksson drew a map of America about
this time. The "Vinland Map" was introduced in 1965 by Yale
University as being the 1st known map of America, drawn about 1440
by Norse explorer Lief Eriksson.
1440 Eton, the top British
public school, was established by Henry VI.
(Hem, 4/96, p.68)
1440-1492 In Lithuania Casimir served as Grand
1440-1870 This period is covered in the 1997 book
by Hugh Thomas: "The Slave Trade, The Story of the Atlantic Slave
(SFEC,11/16/97, BR p.4)(WSJ, 2/26/02, p.A22)
1441 Jun, Jan/Johannes van Eyck
(b.1395), Flemish painter (Lamb Gods), died in Brugge.
1441 Portuguese kidnapped
several noble-born Africans, who in turn offered African slaves to
the captors as ransom. In 1998 John Reader published "Africa: A
Biography of a Continent."
(SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.12)
1442 Apr 28, Edward, the son of
Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was born in Rouen, France. He was
crowned as Edward IV in 1461 and became the first king of the House
of York (1471-1483). In a 2004 television documentary, records were
found in the Rouen Cathedral archives which revealed that, from 14
July to 21 August 1441, the crucial five-week period in which Edward
must have been conceived, Edward's supposed father was away on
campaign at Pontoise, several days' march from Rouen (where Cecily
of York was based), and that prayers were being offered for his
safety. This was taken to suggest that the Duke of York could not
have been available to father Edward.
1442 Jun 12, Alfonso V of
Aragon was crowned King of Naples.
1442 The Pazzi Chapel in
Florence was begun. Its design was suspected to be by Michelozzo di
Bortalommeo, a follower of Brunelleschi.
(SFC, 1/2/97, p.C3)
1442 Al-Maqrizi (b.1364),
Egyptian historian, died. His work included a history of Cairo.
Maqrizi had begun a large work called the Muqaffa, an encyclopedia
of Egyptian biography in alphabetic order. Another Egyptian
historian, al-Sakhawi, believed this would require eighty volumes to
complete, but only sixteen were written.
1443 May 9, Niccolo
d'Albergati, Italian cardinal, died.
1443 Jun 5, Ferdinand,
Portuguese saint, slave to Fez, died.
1443 Dec 5, Giuliano della
Rovere, later Pope Julius II (1443-1513), was born in Liguria.
1443 After losing a battle near
Nis, Skenderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defected from the
Ottoman army and return to Kruja. Albanian resistance to Turkish
rule was organized under the leadership of Skander Beg in Kruja. He
was able to keep Albania independent for more than 20 years. A
baronial museum in his honor was later was designed by the daughter
of Enver Hoxha.
(CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)(WSJ,
4/14/98, p.A21)(www, Albania, 1998)
1444 May 20, Bernardinus van
Siena (63), Italian saint, died.
1444 Aug 26, In the Battle of
St. Jakob an der Birs, fought near Basel in Switzerland, a Swiss
force of some 1,600 soldiers stopped some 30,000 French mercenaries
on their way to relieve a siege of Zurich.
Nov 10, During the Hungarian-Turkish War (1444-1456), Sultan Murad
II beat the Crusaders in the Battle at Varna on the Black Sea.
(DoW, 1999, p.217)
1444 Murad II, Ottoman ruler,
abdicated and Mehmet II (13) briefly succeeded him until 1446.
(Ot, 1993, p.7)
1444 The Albanian people
organized a league of Albanian princes in this year under George
Kastrioti, also known as Skanderbeg. As leader of this Christian
league he effectively repulsed 13 Turkish invasions from 1444 to
1466, making him a hero in the Western world.
(HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)
1444 Cossacks were first
mentioned in Russian history.
1444 Slaves from Africa were
first carried to Portugal. Europe’s first modern-era slave market
was established in Portugal. Lancarote de Freitas returned to Lagos,
Portugal, with his small fleet of six ships and 235 Berbers,
kidnapped from a region of West Africa (Mauritania).
(WSJ, 12/1/97, p.A20)(SSFC, 2/19/17, p.F6)(SFC,
1445 Giovanni di Paolo, Italian
painter in Siena, painted "The Creation," and the Expulsion of Adam
and Eve from Paradise. In this painting Paolo depicted the universe
as a set of nesting concentric spheres.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.244)
1445 The Council of Florence
ended. It established the date for the Great Schism between the
Eastern and Western (Orthodox and Catholic) churches as July, 1054.
An official date was needed so that talks could begin on reunion.
(WSJ, 7/16/97, p.A23)
1445-1510 Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter, was
born in Florence as Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi. His work
included "The Birth of Venus" "Madonna of the Eucharist"
(c1472-1475) and "Portrait of a Man with a Medal." His work "Venus
and Mars" is at the London National Gallery. He belongs to the era
of the Quattro cento, when artists were still struggling to break
free of the rigid outlines of the Middle Ages. His solution was the
use of curved lines. Vasari later claimed that Botticelli was a
follower of Savonarola, the religious zealot.
(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.173)(WSJ, 2/5/97,
p.A16)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)
1446 Apr 16, Filippo
Brunelleschi (69), architect, sculptor and goldsmith, died and was
buried in the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower in Florence. In
the 1490s Antonio di Tuccio Manetti authored "The Life of
Brunelleschi." In 1974 Isabelle Hyman authored "Brunelleschi in
(ON, 9/00, p.8)(MC, 4/16/02)
1446 Oct 9, The Korean alphabet
known as hangul, created under the aegis of King Sejong, was first
published. This day was later made a national holiday.
(AP, 10/9/07)(Econ, 10/10/15, p.40)
1446 In Scotland Sir William
St. Clair, a grand master in the Knights Templar, founded the
Rosslyn Chapel. It was built in the shape of a cross in the Pentland
Hills outside Edinburgh. It became famous as part of the Dan Brown’s
2003 thriller “The Da Vinci Code.”
(SFC, 5/25/06, p.E2)
1446 Mehmet II, Ottoman ruler,
was deposed and Murad II was recalled to the throne.
(Ot, 1993, p.7)
1446-1521 A Gothic choir with buttresses and
pinnacles was added to the abbey Mont St. Michel off the coast of
Normandy, France. It replaced one that had collapsed.
(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P18)
1446-1523 The Italian painter Perugino, born as
Pietro di Cristoforo di Vannucci, was a student of Pierro della
Francesca and Andrea Verrochio. He won a papal commission for
frescoes on the sidewalls of the Sistine Chapel along with
Botticelli and Ghirlandaio. His work included the late weird
allegory "The Combat Between Love and Chastity."
(WSJ, 1/6/98, p.16)
1446-1524 Il Perugino (Pietro Vannucci), painter,
worked in Umbria and died of the plague. His work includes: "The
Baptism," "Mary in Glory," "Adoration of the Magi," Martyrdom of St.
Sebastian," " Madonna and Child," and "The Virgin in Glory."
(WUD, 1994, p.1076)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.49)
1447 The winged altarpiece of
Stephensdom in Vienna, Austria was completed.
(Hem., Dec. '95, p.67)
Oct 31, Johannes VIII Palaeologus (b.1390), Emperor of Byzantium,
1448 In China hyperinflation
hit and paper money lost 97% of its value. China soon abandoned
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)
1448 The Portuguese established
the first European trading post in Africa.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1449 Jan 1, Lorenzo de Medici
(d.1492), later know as Lorenzo the Magnificent, was born in
1449 Albanians, under
Skenderbeg, routed the Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.
(www, Albania, 1998)
1449 Ashikaga Yoshimasa (14)
inherited the office of Shogun, the chief military and civic leader
of feudal Japanese society. His leadership focused on the arts and
depleted the national treasury which led to social and political
(ON, 7/01, p.3)
1449 Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol
(b.1431), father of Cesare and Lucretia, arrived in Rome from Spain
and Italianized his name from Borja to Borgia. His rise in the
church was helped a great deal when his uncle became Pope Calixtus
(HN, 8/10/98)(PTA, p.424)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)(MC,
1449 The giant Scottish bombard
known as Mons Meg was built. It was retired from active service in
1680, after splitting her barrel while firing a ceremonial shot. She
can still be seen in Edinburgh castle.
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